These authors contributed equally.
Living in proximity of a bar and risky alcohol behaviours: a longitudinal study
Article first published online: 18 OCT 2012
© 2012 Finnish Institute of Occupational Health
Volume 108, Issue 2, pages 320–328, February 2013
How to Cite
Halonen, J. I., Kivimäki, M., Virtanen, M., Pentti, J., Subramanian, S.V., Kawachi, I. and Vahtera, J. (2013), Living in proximity of a bar and risky alcohol behaviours: a longitudinal study. Addiction, 108: 320–328. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.04053.x
- Issue published online: 17 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 18 OCT 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 16 AUG 2012 01:50AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 10 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 19 MAR 2012
- Manuscript Received: 18 JAN 2012
- cohort study;
- multi-level study
We examined whether distance from home to the nearest bar, i.e. alcohol outlet permitting consumption on the premises, is associated with risky alcohol behaviours.
Cross-sectional and longitudinal study.
Setting and participants
The cross-sectional data consisted of 78 858 and the longitudinal data of 54 778 Finnish Public Sector Study participants between 2000 and 2009 [mean follow-up 6.8 years (SD = 2.0)].
Distances from home to the nearest bar were calculated using Global Positioning System coordinates. The outcome variables were heavy alcohol use (drinking above the weekly guidelines) and extreme drinking occasions (passing out because of alcohol use). We used binomial logistic regression in cross-sectional analyses and in longitudinal mixed effects (between-individual) analyses. Conditional logistic regression was used in longitudinal fixed effects (within-individual) analyses.
Cross-sectionally, the likelihood of an extreme drinking occasion and heavy use was higher among those who resided <1 versus ≥ 1 km from a bar. Longitudinally, between individuals, a decrease from >1 km to ≤1 km in distance was weakly associated with an extreme drinking occasion [odds ratio (OR) 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98–1.41] and heavy use (1.12, 95% CI 0.97–1.29). Within-individual, the OR for becoming a heavy user was 1.17 (95% CI 1.02–1.34), per 1 km decrease in log-transformed continuous distance, the corresponding OR for an extreme drinking occasion was 1.03 (95% CI 0.89–1.18).
Moving place of residence close to, or far from, a bar appears to be associated with a small corresponding increase or decrease in risky alcohol behaviour.