Annexins are calcium-binding proteins that have been associated in plants with different biological processes such as responses to abiotic stress and early nodulation stages. Until now, the implication of annexins during plant–pathogen interactions has not been reported. Here, a novel plant annexin gene induced in tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures infected with the phytopathogenic bacterium Rhodococcus fascians (strain D188) has been identified. Expression of this gene, called Ntann12, is also induced, but to a lower extent, by a strain (D188-5) that is unable to induce leafy gall formation. This gene was also induced in BY-2 cells infected with Pseudomonas syringae but not in cells infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Escherichia coli. Ntann12 expression was also found to be stimulated by abiotic stress, including NaCl and abscissic acid, confirming a putative role in stress signal transduction pathways. In addition, promoter-GUS analyses using homozygous transgenic tobacco seedlings showed that the developmentally controlled expression of Ntann12 is altered upon R. fascians infection. Finally, up-regulation of Ntann12 during leafy gall ontogenesis was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Discussion is focused on the potential role of Ntann12 in biotic and abiotic stress responses and in plant development, both processes that may involve Ca2+-dependent signalling.