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SUMMARY

Peptaibols, the products of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), are linear peptide antibiotics produced by Trichoderma and other fungal genera. Trichoderma virens strain Gv29-8, a well-known biocontrol agent and inducer of plant defence responses, produces three lengths of peptaibols, 11, 14 and 18 residues long, with several isoforms of each. Disruption of the NRPS gene, tex1, encoded by a 62.8-kb uninterrupted open reading frame, results in the loss of production of all forms of 18-residue peptaibols. Tex1 is expressed during all Trichoderma developmental stages (germinating conidia, sporulating and non-sporulating mycelia) examined on solid media. Expression analysis by reverse transcriptase PCR shows that in Gv29-8 wild-type the abundance of tex1 transcript is greater during co-cultivation with cucumber seedling roots than when grown alone. Cucumber plants co-cultivated with T. virens strains disrupted in tex1 show a significantly reduced systemic resistance response against the leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans, and reduced ability to produce phenolic compounds with inhibitory activity to the bacteria as compared with plants grown in the presence of wild-type. Two synthetic 18-amino-acid peptaibol isoforms (TvBI and TvBII) from Gv29-8 when applied to cucumber seedlings through the transpiration stream can alone induce systemic protection to the leaf pathogenic bacteria, induce antimicrobial compounds in cucumber cotyledons and up-regulate hydroxyperoxide lyase (hpl), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (pal1) and peroxidase (prx) gene expression. These data strongly suggest that the 18mer peptaibols are critical in the chemical communication between Trichoderma and plants as triggers of non-cultivar-specific defence responses.