Identification and functional characterization of effectors in expressed sequence tags from various life cycle stages of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida


  • Note: EST sequences reported for the first time in this article are available in dbEST.

  • Accession numbers of genes used in this study: FJ810122 (13G11), FJ810123 (22E10), FJ810124 (24D4), FJ810125 (33H17), ACJ14490 (RBP1).



In this article, we describe the analysis of over 9000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from cDNA libraries obtained from various life cycle stages of Globodera pallida. We have identified over 50 G. pallida effectors from this dataset using bioinformatics analysis, by screening clones in order to identify secreted proteins up-regulated after the onset of parasitism and using in situ hybridization to confirm the expression in pharyngeal gland cells. A substantial gene family encoding G. pallida SPRYSEC proteins has been identified. The expression of these genes is restricted to the dorsal pharyngeal gland cell. Different members of the SPRYSEC family of proteins from G. pallida show different subcellular localization patterns in plants, with some localized to the cytoplasm and others to the nucleus and nucleolus. Differences in subcellular localization may reflect diverse functional roles for each individual protein or, more likely, variety in the compartmentalization of plant proteins targeted by the nematode. Our data are therefore consistent with the suggestion that the SPRYSEC proteins suppress host defences, as suggested previously, and that they achieve this through interaction with a range of host targets.