SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Acreman, M.C. (1996) Environmental effects of hydro-electric power generation in Africa and the potential for artificial floods. J. Chart. Inst. Water Environ. Manag. 10, 429435.
  • Anon. (2003) A lead-free Africa is ‘in sight’. Afr. Recovery 17, 28.
  • Anon. (2006) Editorial: towards a real-world understanding of less ecologically damaging patterns of urban development. Environ. Urban. 18, 267273.
  • APINA (2003) Air Pollution in Africa. Available at: http://www.york.ac.uk/inst/sei/rapidc2/apina/airpolafr.html#top (accessed on 1 August 2007).
  • Arnold, M., Köhlin, K., Persson, R. & Shepherd, G. (2003) Fuelwood Revisited: What Has Changed in the Last Decade? Occasional Paper 39. CIFOR, Jakarta.
  • Barnes, D. (1995) Consequences of Energy Policies for the Urban Poor. FPD Energy Note No 7. The World Bank, Washington, DC.
  • Bartle, A. (2002) Hydropower potential and development activities. Energy Policy 30, 12311239.
  • Bruce, N. (2002) Public Health and Household Energy – An Introduction to the Key Issues. Available at: http://sparknet.info/goto.php/view/1/theme.htm (accessed on 12 November 2008).
  • Bruce, N., Perez-Padilla, R. & Alablak, R. (2000) Indoor air pollution in developing countries: a major environmental and public health challenge. WHO Bull. 2000 78, 10781092.
  • Chidumayo, E.N. (1993) Zambian charcoal production: miombo woodland recovery. Energy Policy 21, 586597.
  • Clancy, J.S., Alvarez, A., Maduka, O. & Lumampao, F.G. (2006) Enabling Urban Poor Livelihoods Policy Making: Understanding the Role of Energy Services. Department for International Development, London.
  • Ekholm, E. (1975) The Other Energy Crisis: Firewood. Worldwatch Paper 1. Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC.
  • FAO (2000) Yearbook of Forest Products Quoted in FAO, 2001, Forestry Outlook Study for Africa: A Regional Overview of Opportunities and Challenges Towards 2020. Draft report prepared by African Forestry and Wildlife Commission and Near East Forestry Commission, November 2001, FAO Forestry Paper 141, FAO, Rome.
  • FAO (2006) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005: Progress towards Sustainable Forest Management. FAO, Rome.
  • Ghebreyesus, T.A., Haile, M., Witten, K.H., Getachew, A., Yohannes, A.M., Yohannes, M., Teklehaimanot, H.D., Lindsay, S.W. & Byass, P. (1999) Incidence of malaria among children living near dams in northern Ethiopia: community based incidence survey. BMJ 319, 663666.
  • Girard, P. (2002) Charcoal production and use in Africa: what future? Unasylva 53, 3035.
  • Haile, F. (1991) Women Fuelwood Carriers in Addis Ababa and the Peri-Urban Forest. International Labour Organization, Geneva. Cited in: RAJAN, S.C. & MORRIS, E. (1999) Energy as it Relates to Poverty Alleviation and Environmental Protection. Poverty and Environment Initiative Publication Series. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
  • Hosier, R.H. & Kipondya, W. (1993) Urban household energy use in Tanzania. Energy Policy 21, 454473.
  • Kirubi, C., Wamicha, W.N. & Laichena, J.K. (2000) The effects of woodfuel consumption in the ASAL areas of Kenya: the case of Marsabit forest. Afr. J. Ecol. 38, 4752.
  • Leach, G. & Mearns, R. (1988) Beyond the Woodfuel Crisis: People, Land and Trees in Africa. Earthscan Publications Ltd, London.
  • Lerer, L.B. & Scudder, T. (1999) Health impacts of large dams. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. 19, 113123.
  • Maduka, J.O. (2006) Smoke Gets in their Eyes: The Women Fish Smokers of Lagos. ENERGIA News 9.1, 1213.
  • Matthys, B., N’goran, E.K., KonÉ, M., Koudou, B.G., Vounatsou, P., CissÉ, G., Tschannen, A.B., Tanner, M. & Utzinger, J. (2006) Urban agricultural land use and characterization of mosquito larval habitats in a medium-sized town of Côte d’Ivoire. J. Vector Ecol. 31, 319333.
  • McGranahan, G., Satterthwaite, D. & Tacoli, C. (2004) Rural–Urban Change, Boundary Problems and Environmental Burdens. IIED, London.
  • Mcintyre, N.E., Knowles-Yaňez, K. & Hope, D. (2000) Urban ecology as an interdisciplinary field: differences in the use of “urban” between the social and natural sciences. Urban Ecosyst. 4, 524.
  • Moffatt, I. (2000) Ecological footprints and sustainable development. Ecol. Econ. 32, 359362.
  • Mukabana, W.R., Kannady, K., Kiama, G.M., Ijumba, J.N., Mathenge, E.M., Kiche, I., Nkwengulila, G., Mboera, L., Mtasiwa, D., Yamagata, Y., Van Schayk, I., Knols, B.G.J., Lindsay, S.W., Caldas De Castro, M., Mshinda, H., Tanner, M., Fillinger, U. & Killeen, G.F. (2006) Ecologists can enable communities to implement malaria vector control in Africa. Malar. J. 5, Article number 9. doi: DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-5-9.
  • Nash, R. & Luttrell, C. (2006) Crisis to Context: The Fuelwood Debate. ODI Forest Policy and Environment Programme, Overseas Development Institute, London. Available at: http://www.odi.org.uk (downloaded 10 February 2008).
  • O’Meara, M. (1999) Reinventing Cities for People and the Planet. Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC. Cited in UN Population Fund (2001), State of the World Population Report (http://www.unfpa.org/swp/2001/).
  • Opschoor, H. (2000) The ecological footprint: measuring rod or metaphor? Ecol. Econ. 32, 363365.
  • Robert, V., Macintyre, K., Keating, J., Trape, J.-F., Duchemin, J.-B., Warren, M. & Beier, J.C. (2003) Malaria transmission in urban sub-Saharan Africa. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 68, 169176.
  • Savioli, L., Renganathan, E., Montresora, A., Davis, A. & Behbehani, K. (1997) Control of schistosomiasis – a global picture. Parasitol. Today 13, 444448.
  • Shanko, M. & Rouse, J. (2005) The human and livelihoods cost of fuel-switching in Addis Ababa. Boiling Point 51, 3133.
  • Showers, K.B. (2002) Water scarcity and urban Africa: an overview of rural–urban water linkages. World Dev. 30, 621648.
  • Tannerfeldt, G. & Ljung, P. (2006) More Urban, Less Poor: An Introduction to Urban Development and Management. Earthscan, London and Sterling, VA.
  • Theuri, D. (2006) Scaling Up Access to Energy Agenda: Decentralized Small Hydropower Schemes in Sub Sahara Africa. African Development Bank FINESSE Newsletter. April 2006. Available at: http://finesse-africa.org/newsletter/200604/hp_africa.php (accessed on 11 February 2008).
  • UN Population Fund (2007) State of the World Population Report. Available at: http://www.unfpa.org/swp/2007/; http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WUP2005/2005WUP_FS8.pdf (accessed on 4 July 2007).
  • UN-DESA (2004) Sustainable Energy Consumption in Africa. UN-DESA, New York.
  • UNEP (undated) Municipal Solid Waste Management. Available at: http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/ESTdir/Pub/MSW/RO/africa/Topic_e.asp (accessed on 1 August 2007).
  • United Nations (2006) Fact Sheet 8: Medium Size Cities in World Urbanization Prospects: The 2005 Revision. Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York.
  • WWF (2002) The Living Planet Report. WWF, Gland. Available at: http://www.panda.org/livingplanet (accessed on 4 July 2007).
  • WWF (2006) The Living Planet Report. WWF, Gland. Available at: http://www.panda.org/livingplanet (accessed on 4 July 2007).