• 1
    Sjostrom L, Rissanen A, Andersen T, et al. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of orlistat for weight loss and prevention of weight regain in obese patients. European Multicentre Orlistat Study Group. Lancet 1998; 352: 16772.
  • 2
    Rossner S, Sjostrom L, Noack R, Meinders AE, Noseda G. Weight loss, weight maintenance, and improved cardiovascular risk factors after 2 years treatment with orlistat for obesity. European Orlistat Obesity Study Group. Obes Res 2000; 8: 4961.
  • 3
    Zhi J, Melia AT, Guerciolini R, et al. Retrospective population-based analysis of the dose–response (fecal fat excretion) relationship of orlistat in normal and obese volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1994; 56: 825.
  • 4
    Heymsfield SB, Segal KR, Hauptman J, et al. Effects of weight loss with orlistat on glucose tolerance and progression to type 2 diabetes in obese adults. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 13216.
  • 5
    Read NW, Harford WV, Schmulen AC, Read MG, Santa Ana C, Fordtran JS. A clinical study of patients with fecal incontinence and diarrhea. Gastroenterology 1979; 76: 74756.
  • 6
    Read MG, Read NW. Role of anorectal sensation in preserving continence. Gut 1982; 23: 3457.
  • 7
    Siproudhis L, Bellissant E, Juguet F, Allain H, Bretagne JF, Gosselin M. Perception of and adaptation to rectal isobaric distension in patients with faecal incontinence. Gut 1999; 44: 68792.
  • 8
    Rao SS, Read NW, Davison PA, Bannister JJ, Holdsworth CD. Anorectal sensitivity and responses to rectal distention in patients with ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 1987; 93: 12705.
  • 9
    Salvioli B, Bharucha AE, Rath-Harvey D, Pemberton JH, Phillips SF. Rectal compliance, capacity, and rectoanal sensation in fecal incontinence. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 215868.
    Direct Link:
  • 10
    Sun WM, Donnelly TC, Read NW. Utility of a combined test of anorectal manometry, electromyography, and sensation in determining the mechanism of ‘idiopathic’ faecal incontinence. Gut 1992; 33: 80713.
  • 11
    Wald A, Tunuguntla AK. Anorectal sensorimotor dysfunction in fecal incontinence and diabetes mellitus. Modification with biofeedback therapy. N Engl J Med 1984; 310: 12827.
  • 12
    Read NW, Bartolo DC, Read MG. Differences in anal function in patients with incontinence to solids and in patients with incontinence to liquids. Br J Surg 1984; 71: 3942.
  • 13
    Fox M, Schwizer W, Menne D, Fried M, Thumshirn M. The measurement of rectal capacity by barostat techniques. Gut 2003; 52(Suppl. VI): A91(Abstract).
  • 14
    Fox M, Thumshirn M, Menne D, Fried M, Schwizer W. The determinants of anorectal sensation and continence in health. Swiss Med Forum 2003; 3(Suppl. 14): S22(Abstract).
  • 15
    Felt-Bersma RJ, Klinkenberg-Knol EC, Meuwissen SG. Anorectal function investigations in incontinent and continent patients. Differences and discriminatory value. Dis Colon Rectum 1990; 33: 47985; discussion 485–76.
  • 16
    Whitehead WE, Delvaux M. Standardization of barostat procedures for testing smooth muscle tone and sensory thresholds in the gastrointestinal tract. The Working Team of Glaxo-Wellcome Research, UK. Dig Dis Sci 1997; 42: 22341.
  • 17
    Diamant NE, Kamm MA, Wald A, Whitehead WE. AGA technical review on anorectal testing techniques. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: 73560.
  • 18
    Miller R, Bartolo DC, Roe A, Cervero F, Mortensen NJ. Anal sensation and the continence mechanism. Dis Colon Rectum 1988; 31: 4338.
  • 19
    Andriesse GI, Gooszen HG, Schipper ME, Akkermans LM, Van Vroonhoven TJ, Van Laarhoven CJ. Functional results and visceral perception after ileo neo-rectal anastomosis in patients: a pilot study. Gut 2001; 48: 6839.
  • 20
    Engel AF, Kamm MA, Bartram CI, Nicholls RJ. Relationship of symptoms in faecal incontinence to specific sphincter abnormalities. Int J Colorectal Dis 1995; 10: 1525.
  • 21
    Sun WM, Read NW, Miner PB. Relation between rectal sensation and anal function in normal subjects and patients with faecal incontinence. Gut 1990; 31: 105661.
  • 22
    Rasmussen O, Christensen B, Sorensen M, Tetzschner T, Christiansen J. Rectal compliance in the assessment of patients with fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum 1990; 33: 6503.
  • 23
    Diamant NE, Harris LD. Comparison of objective measurement of anal sphincter strength with anal sphincter pressures and levator ani function. Gastroenterology 1969; 56: 1106.