• 1
    Munkholm P, Langholz E, Davidsen M, Binder V. Frequency of glucocorticoid resistance and dependency in Crohn's disease. Gut 1994; 35: 3602.
  • 2
    Faubion WA, Jr, Loftus EV, Jr, Harmsen WS, Zinsmeister AR, Sandborn WJ. The natural history of corticosteroid therapy for inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study. Gastroenterology 2001; 121: 255260.
  • 3
    Rutgeerts P. Review article: the limitations of corticosteroid therapy in Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001; 15: 151525.
  • 4
    Present DH. How to do without steroids in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2000; 6: 4857.
  • 5
    Fraser AG, Orchard TR, Jewell DP. The efficacy of azathioprine for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: a 30 year review. Gut 2002; 50: 4859.
  • 6
    López-Sanromán A, Bermejo F, Carrera E, García-Plaza A. Efficacy and safety of thiopurine immunomodulators (azathioprine and mercaptopurine) in steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 20: 1616.
  • 7
    Fraser AG. Methotrexate: first-line or second-line immunomodulator? Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003; 15: 22531.
  • 8
    Colombel J-F, Loftus EV, Jr, Tremaine WJ, et al. The safety profile of infliximab in patients with Crohn's disease: the Mayo Clinic experience in 500 patients. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 1931.
  • 9
    Nagashima M, Yosino S, Tanaka H, Yoshida N, Kashiwagi N, Saniabadi A. Granulocyte and monocyte apheresis suppresses symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study. Rheumatol Int 1998; 18: 1138.
  • 10
    Kanekura T, Yoshii N, Yonezawa T, Kawabata H, Saruwatari H, Kanzaki T. Treatment of pustular psoriasis with granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis. J Acad Dermatol 2003; 49: 329332.
  • 11
    Neuwelt CM. The role of plasmapheresis in the treatment of severe central nervous system neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Therap Apher Dial 2003; 7: 17382.
  • 12
    Haas M, Mayr N, Zeitlhofer J, Goldammer A, Derfler K. Long-term treatment of myasthenia gravis with immunoadsorption. J Clin Apheresis 2002; 17: 8487.
  • 13
    Shimoyama T, Sawada K, Hiwatashi N, et al. Safety and efficacy of granulocytes and monocyte adsorption apheresis in patients with active ulcerative colitis: a multicenter study. J Clin Apher 2001; 16: 19.
  • 14
    Naganuma M, Funakoshi S, Sakuraba A, et al. Granulocytapheresis is useful as an alternative therapy in patients with steroid-refractory or -dependent ulcerative colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2004; 10: 2517.
  • 15
    Hanai H, Watanabe F, Takeuchi K, et al. Leukocyte adsorptive apheresis for the treatment of active ulcerative colitis: a prospective, uncontrolled, pilot study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003; 1: 2835.
  • 16
    Matsui T, Nishimura T, Matake H, Ohta T, Sakurai T, Yao T. Granulocyteapheresis for Crohn's disease: a report on seven refractory patients. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98: 5112.
  • 17
    Kashiwagi N, Nakano M, Saniabadi AR, Adachi M, Yoshikawa T. Anti-inflammatory effect of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis in a rabbit model of immune arthritis. Inflammation 2002; 26: 199205.
  • 18
    Hiraishi K, Takeda Y, Shiobara N, et al. Studies on the mechasnisms of leukocyte adhesion to cellulose acetate beads: an in vitro model to assess the efficacy of cellulose acetate carrier-based granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis. Therap Apher Dial 2003; 7: 33440.
  • 19
    Kashiwagi N, Sugimura K, Koiwai H, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of granulocytes and monocytes apheresis as a treatment for patients with ulcerative colitis. Dig Dis Sci 2002; 47: 133441.
  • 20
    Rembacken BJ, Newbould HE, Richards SJ, et al. Granulocyte apheresis in inflammatory bowel disease: possible mechanisms of effect. Ther Apher 1998; 2: 9396.
  • 21
    Lennard-Jones JE. Classification of inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 1989; 24: 26.
  • 22
    Rachmilewitz D. Coated mesalazine (5-amino-salicylic acid) versus sulphasalazine in the treatment of active ulcerative colitis: a randomised trial. BMJ 1989; 298: 8286.
  • 23
    Gaffney PR, Doyle CT, Gaffney A, Hogan J, Hayes DP, Annis P. Paradoxical response to heparin in 10 patients with ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 1995; 90: 2203.
  • 24
    Evans RC, Wong VS, Morris AI, Rhodes JM. Treatment of corticosteroid-resistant ulcerative colitis with heparin – a report of 16 cases. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1997; 11: 10371040.
  • 25
    Panés J, Esteve M, Cabré E, et al. Comparison of heparin and steroids in the treatment of moderate and severe ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 9038.
  • 26
    Sandborn WJ, Feagan BG, Hanauer SB, et al. A review of activity indices and efficacy endpoints for clinical trials of medical therapy in adults with Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 51230.
  • 27
    Gasche C, Scholmerich J, Brynskov J, et al. A simple classification of Crohn's disease: report of the working party for the World Congresses of Gastroenterology, Vienna 1998. Infl Bowel Dis 2000; 5: 815.