The armamentarium of medications for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease is growing and becoming more complicated to use. Immunomodulators are a class of medications that have found a niche for the treatment of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Because of the mounting supporting evidence for efficacy, the most commonly-used immunomodulators are azathioprine, mercaptopurine, methotrexate and ciclosporin. These medications are being used more often due to their steroid-sparing and potentially surgery-sparing effects. Immunomodulators are also known for a significant side-effect profile and require careful monitoring. This review provides the latest information for clinicians on efficacy, side-effects, dosing and monitoring of these medications for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.