• 1
    Tiede I, Fritz G, Strand S, et al. CD28-dependent Rac1 activation is the molecular target of azathioprine in primary human CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Clin Invest 2003; 111: 113345.
  • 2
    Lennard L. The clinical pharmacology of 6-mercaptopurine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992; 43: 32939.
  • 3
    Alves S, Prata MJ, Ferreira F, Amorim A. Screening of thiopurine S-methyltransferase mutations by horizontal conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis. Hum Mutat 2000; 15: 24653.
  • 4
    Armstrong VW, Shipkova M, von Ahsen N, Oellerich M. Analytic aspects of monitoring therapy with thiopurine medications. Ther Drug Monit 2004; 26: 2206.
  • 5
    Krynetski EY, Tai HL, Yates CR, et al. Genetic polymorphism of thiopurine S-methyltransferase: clinical importance and molecular mechanisms. Pharmacogenetics 1996; 6: 27990.
  • 6
    Hon YY, Fessing MY, Pui CH, Relling MV, Krynetski EY, Evans WE. Polymorphism of the thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene in African-Americans. Hum Mol Genet 1999; 8: 3716.
  • 7
    Krynetski EY, Evans WE. Genetic polymorphism of thiopurine S-methyltransferase: molecular mechanisms and clinical importance. Pharmacology 2000; 61: 13646.
  • 8
    Otterness D, Szumlanski C, Lennard L, et al. Human thiopurine methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: gene sequence polymorphisms. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 62: 6073.
  • 9
    Yates CR, Krynetski EY, Loennechen T, et al. Molecular diagnosis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficiency: genetic basis for azathioprine and mercaptopurine intolerance. Ann Intern Med 1997; 126: 60814.
  • 10
    Weinshilboum R. Thiopurine pharmacogenetics: clinical and molecular studies of thiopurine methyltransferase. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29: 6015.
  • 11
    Weinshilboum RMSS. Mercaptopurine pharmacogenetics: monogenic inheritance of erythrocyte thiopurine methyltransferase activity. Am J Hum Genet 1980; 32: 65162.
  • 12
    Reuther LO, Sonne J, Larsen N, Dahlerup JF, Thomsen OO, Schmiegelow K. Thiopurine methyltransferase genotype distribution in patients with Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 17: 658.
  • 13
    Weinshilboum RM, Raymond FA, Pazmino PA. Human erythrocyte thiopurine methyltransferase: radiochemical microassay and biochemical properties. Clin Chim Acta 1978; 85: 32333.
  • 14
    Pearson DC, May GR, Fick GH, Sutherland LR. Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine in Crohn's disease. A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1995; 123: 13242.
  • 15
    Willoughby JMBJ, Kumar PJ, Dawson AM. Controlled trial of azathioprine in Crohn's disease. Lancet 1971; 2: 9447.
  • 16
    Klein MBH, Mitchell M, Aaronson R, Spiro H. Treatment of Crohn's disease with azathioprine: a controlled evaluation. Gastroenterology 1974; 66: 91622.
  • 17
    Present DHKB, Wisch N, Glass JL, Sachar DB, Pasternack BS. Treatment of Crohn's disease with 6-mercaptopurine. A long-term randomized double-blind study. N Engl J Med 1980; 302: 9817.
  • 18
    Ewe KPA, Singe CC, Stufler M, et al. Azathioprine combined with prednisolone or monotherapy with prednisolone in active Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 1993; 105: 36772.
  • 19
    Candy SWJ, Gerber M, Adams G, Gerig M, Goodman R. A controlled double blind study of azathioprine in the management of Crohn's disease. Gut 1995; 37: 6748.
  • 20
    Rosenberg JLLB, Wall AJ, Kirsner JB. A controlled trial of azathioprine in Crohn's disease. Am J Dig Dis 1975; 20: 7216.
  • 21
    Sandborn WSL, Pearson D, May G, Modigliani R, Prantera C. Azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine for inducing remission of Crohn's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 00: CD000545.
  • 22
    Pearson DCMG, Fick G, Sutherland LR. Azathioprine for maintaining remission of Crohn's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 00: CD000067.
  • 23
    Caprilli RCR, Babbini M. Double-blind comparison of the effectiveness of azathioprine and sulfasalizine in idiopathic proctocolitis. Am J Dig Dis 1975; 20: 11520.
  • 24
    Korelitz BHS, Rutgeerts P, Present D, Peppercorn M. Post-operative prophylaxis with 6-MP, 5-ASA or placebo in Crohn's disease: a 2 year multi-center trial. Gastroenterology 1998; 114: A1011.
  • 25
    Cuillerier E, Lemann M, Bouhnik Y, Allez M, Rambaud JC, Modigliani R. Azathioprine for prevention of postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease: a retrospective study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001; 13: 12916.
  • 26
    Korelitz BI, Adler DJ, Mendelsohn RA, Sacknoff AL. Long-term experience with 6-mercaptopurine in the treatment of Crohn's disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1993; 88: 1198205.
  • 27
    Hanauer SB, Korelitz BI, Rutgeerts P, et al. Postoperative maintenance of Crohn's disease remission with 6-mercaptopurine, mesalamine, or placebo: a 2-year trial. Gastroenterology 2004; 127: 7239.
  • 28
    Ardizzone S, Maconi G, Sampietro GM, et al. Azathioprine and mesalamine for prevention of relapse after conservative surgery for Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 2004; 127: 73040.
  • 29
    Markowitz JGK, Kohn N, Lesser M, Daum F. A multicenter trial of 6-mercaptopurine and prednisone in children with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 895902.
  • 30
    Bouhnik Y, Lemann M, Mary JY, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with Crohn's disease treated with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine. Lancet 1996; 347: 2159.
  • 31
    Treton XBY, Mary JY, Colombel JF, et al. Azathioprine withdrawal in patients with Crohn's disease maintained on prolonged remission under treatment is associated with a high risk of relapse. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: A113.
  • 32
    Connell WRKM, Ritchie JK, Lennard-Jones JE. Bone marrow toxicity caused by azathioprine in inflammatory bowel disease: 27 years of experience. Gut 1993; 34: 10815.
  • 33
    Present DHMS, Krumholz MP, Wolke A, Korelitz BL. 6-Mercaptopurine in the management of inflammatory bowel disease: short and long-term toxicity. Ann Intern Med 1989; 111: 64149.
  • 34
    Dubinsky MC, Yang H, Hassard PV, et al. 6-MP metabolite profiles provide a biochemical explanation for 6-MP resistance in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 90415.
  • 35
    Cuffari C, Theoret Y, Latour S, Seidman G. 6-Mercaptopurine metabolism in Crohn's disease: correlation with efficacy and toxicity. Gut 1996; 39: 4016.
  • 36
    Belaiche JDJ, Horsmans Y, Louis E. Therapeutic drug monitoring of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine metabolites in Crohn's disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 2001; 36: 716.
  • 37
    Sandborn WJTW, Wolf DC, Targan SR, et al. Lack of effect of intravenous administration on time to respond to azathioprine for steroids-treated Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 1999; 117: 52735.
  • 38
    Cuffari C, Hunt S, Bayless T. Utilization of erthyrocyte 6-thioguinine metabolite levels to optimize azathioprine therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 2001; 48: 6426.
  • 39
    Dubinsky MC, Lamothe S, Yang HY, et al. Pharmacogenomics and metabolite measurement for 6-mercaptopurine therapy in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: 70513.
  • 40
    Cuffari CDT, Turnbaugh L, Thompson R, Bayless TM. Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity influences clinical response to maintenance azathioprine in patients with IBD. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: A221.
  • 41
    Pettersson BAS, Albertioni F, Soderhall S, Peterson C. Differences between children and adults in thiopurine methyltransferase activity and metabolite formation during thiopurine therapy: possible role of concomitant methotrexate. Ther Drug Monit 2002; 24: 35158.
  • 42
    Evans WE, Hon YY, Bomgaars L, et al. Preponderance of thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficiency and heterozygosity among patients intolerant to mercaptopurine or azathioprine. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19: 2293301.
  • 43
    Evans WE, Horner M, Chu YQ, Kalwinsky D, Roberts WM. Altered mercaptopurine metabolism, toxic effects, and dosage requirement in a thiopurine methyltransferase-deficient child with acute lymphocytic leukemia. J Pediatr 1991; 119: 9859.
  • 44
    Colombel JFFN, Debuysere H, Marteau P, et al. Genotypic analysis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase in patients with Crohn's disease and severe myelosuppression during azathioprine therapy. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: 102530.
  • 45
    Seddik MTF, Ferrari N, Cortot A, Libersa C, Broly F, Colombel J. Thiopurine S-methyltransferase genotyping does not predict azathioprine-induced myelosuppression in Crohn's disease (abstract). Gastroenterology 2003; 125: s1311.
  • 46
    Curvers WDL, Stokkers P, Vogels E, et al. No predictive value of TPMT genotyping for leucopenia of hepatoxicity during azathioprine therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (abstract). Gastroenterology 2003; 124: A377.
  • 47
    Kaskas BA, Louis E, Hindorf U, et al. Safe treatment of thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficient Crohn's disease patients with azathioprine. Gut 2003; 52: 1402.
  • 48
    Ho G-T, Lees C, Satsangi J. Pharmacogenetics and inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2004; 10: 14858.
  • 49
    Decaux GPF, Horsmans Y, Desager JP. Relationship between red cell mean corpuscular volume and 6-thioguanine nucleotides in patients treated with azathioprine. J Lab Clin Med 2000; 135: 25662.
  • 50
    Thomas CW Jr, Lowry PW, Franklin CL, et al. Erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume as a surrogate marker for 6-thioguanine nucleotide concentration monitoring in patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2003; 9: 23745.
  • 51
    Bouhnik YLM, Mary JY, Scemama G, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with Crohn's disease treated with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine. Lancet 1996; 347: 2159.
  • 52
    Cheng B, Lichtenstein GR. Are individuals with Crohn's disease who are intolerant to 6-mercaptopurine able to tolerate azathioprine? Gastroenterology 2000; 118: A1336.
  • 53
    Dayharsh GA, Loftus EV Jr, Sandborn WJ, et al. Epstein-Barr virus-positive lymphoma in patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 727.
  • 54
    Lewis JD, Bilker WB, Brensinger C, Deren JJ, Vaughn DJ, Strom BL. Inflammatory bowel disease is not associated with an increased risk of lymphoma. Gastroenterology 2001; 121: 10807.
  • 55
    Aithal GP, Mansfield JC. Review article: The risk of lymphoma associated with inflammatory bowel disease and immunosuppressive treatment. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001; 15: 11018.
  • 56
    Szumlanski CL, Weinshilboum RM. Sulphasalazine inhibition of thiopurine methyltransferase: possible mechanism for interaction with 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995; 39: 4569.
  • 57
    Lewis LD, Benin A, Szumlanski CL, et al. Olsalazine and 6-mercaptopurine-related bone marrow suppression: a possible drug-drug interaction. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 62: 46475.
  • 58
    Lowry PW, Franklin CL, Weaver AL, et al. Leucopenia resulting from a drug interaction between azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine and mesalamine, sulphasalazine, or balsalazide. Gut 2001; 49: 65664.
  • 59
    Gardiner SJ, Begg EJ, Barclay ML, Kirkpatrick CM. Genetic polymorphism and outcomes with azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev 2000; 19: 293312.
  • 60
    Projuansky R, Maxwell M, Johnson J, et al. Molecular genotyping predicts complications of 6-mercaptopurine therapy in childhood IBD. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: A800.
  • 61
    Schwab M, Klotz U. Pharmacokinetic considerations in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Pharmacokinet 2001; 40: 72351.
  • 62
    Fahr A. Cyclosporin clinical pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacokinet 1993; 24: 47295.
  • 63
    Noble S, Markham A. Cyclosporin. A review of the pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy and tolerability of a microemulsion-based formulation (Neoral). Drugs 1995; 50: 92441.
  • 64
    Lichtiger S, Present DH, Kornbluth A, et al. Cyclosporine in severe ulcerative colitis refractory to steroid therapy. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 18415.
  • 65
    D'Haens G, Lemmens L, Geboes K, et al. Intravenous cyclosporine versus intravenous corticosteroids as single therapy for severe attacks of ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 13239.
  • 66
    Van Assche G, D'Haens G, Noman M, et al. Randomized, double-blind comparison of 4 mg/kg versus 2 mg/kg intravenous cyclosporine in severe ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 102531.
  • 67
    Brynskov J, Freund L, Rasmussen SN, et al. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of cyclosporine therapy in active chronic Crohn's disease. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 84550.
  • 68
    Feagan BG, McDonald JW, Rochon J, et al. Low-dose cyclosporine for the treatment of Crohn's disease. The Canadian Crohn's Relapse Prevention Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 184651.
  • 69
    Stange EF, Modigliani R, Pena AS, Wood AJ, Feutren G, Smith PR. European trial of cyclosporine in chronic active Crohn's disease: a 12-month study. The European Study Group. Gastroenterology 1995; 109: 77482.
  • 70
    Present DH, Lichtiger S. Efficacy of cyclosporine in treatment of fistula of Crohn's disease. Dig Dis Sci 1994; 39: 37480.
  • 71
    Kornbluth A, Present DH, Lichtiger S, Hanauer S. Cyclosporin for severe ulcerative colitis: a user's guide. Am J Gastroenterol 1997; 92: 14248.
  • 72
    de Groen PC, Aksamit AJ, Rakela J, Forbes GS, Krom RA. Central nervous system toxicity after liver transplantation. The role of cyclosporine and cholesterol. N Engl J Med 1987; 317: 8616.
  • 73
    Steimer W. Performance and specificity of monoclonal immunoassays for cyclosporine monitoring: how specific is specific? Clin Chem 1999; 45: 37181.
  • 74
    Steimer W. Evaluation of the AxSYM CyA assay compared with HPLC, TDx monoclonal and EMIT with both pretreatments. Transplant Proc 1998; 30: 40457.
  • 75
    Schutz E, Svinarov D, Shipkova M, et al. Cyclosporin whole blood immunoassays (AxSYM, CEDIA, and Emit): a critical overview of performance characteristics and comparison with HPLC. Clin Chem 1998; 44: 215864.
  • 76
    Ameer B, Weintraub RA. Drug interactions with grapefruit juice. Clin Pharmacokinet 1997; 33: 10321.
  • 77
    Michalets EL. Update: clinically significant cytochrome P-450 drug interactions. Pharmacotherapy 1998; 18: 84112.
  • 78
    Gomez DY, Wacher VJ, Tomlanovich SJ, Hebert MF, Benet LZ. The effects of ketoconazole on the intestinal metabolism and bioavailability of cyclosporine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1995; 58: 159.
  • 79
    Greeson JM, Sanford B, Monti DA. St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum): a review of the current pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical literature. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2001; 153: 40214.
  • 80
    Sandborn WJ. A review of immune modifier therapy for inflammatory bowel disease: azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, cyclosporine, and methotrexate. Am J Gastroenterol 1996; 91: 42333.
  • 81
    Cronstein BN. Molecular mechanism of methotrexate action in inflammation. Inflammation 1992; 16: 41123.
  • 82
    Cronstein BN. The mechanism of action of methotrexate. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1997; 23: 73955.
  • 83
    Goto Y, Yue L, Yokoi A, et al. A novel single-nucleotide polymorphism in the 3′-untranslated region of the human dihydrofolate reductase gene with enhanced expression. Clin Cancer Res 2001; 7: 19526.
  • 84
    Egan LJ, Sandborn WJ, Mays DC, Tremaine WJ, Lipsky JJ. Plasma and rectal adenosine in inflammatory bowel disease: effect of methotrexate. Inflamm Bowel Dis 1999; 5: 16773.
  • 85
    Bouma MG, Stad RK, van den Wildenberg FA, Buurman WA. Differential regulatory effects of adenosine on cytokine release by activated human monocytes. J Immunol 1994; 153: 415968.
  • 86
    Moshkowitz M, Oren R, Tishler M, et al. The absorption of low-dose methotrexate in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1997; 11: 56973.
  • 87
    Egan LJ, Sandborn WJ. Methotrexate for inflammatory bowel disease: pharmacology and preliminary results. Mayo Clin Proc 1996; 71: 6980.
  • 88
    Shen DD, Azarnoff DL. Clinical pharmacokinetics of methotrexate. Clin Pharmacokinet 1978; 3: 113.
  • 89
    Kozarek RA, Patterson DJ, Gelfand MD, Botoman VA, Ball TJ, Wilske KR. Methotrexate induces clinical and histologic remission in patients with refractory inflammatory bowel disease. Ann Intern Med 1989; 110: 3536.
  • 90
    Feagan BG, Rochon J, Fedorak RN, et al. Methotrexate for the treatment of Crohn's disease. The North American Crohn's Study Group Investigators. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 2927.
  • 91
    Oren R, Arber N, Odes S, et al. Methotrexate in chronic active ulcerative colitis: a double-blind, randomized, Israeli multicenter trial. Gastroenterology 1996; 110: 141621.
  • 92
    Oren RMM, Odes S, Becker S, et al. Methotrexate in chronic active Crohn's disease: a double-blind, randomized, Israeli multicenter trial. Am J Gastroenterol 1997; 92: 22039.
  • 93
    Arora S, Katkov W, Cooley J, et al. Methotrexate in Crohn's disease: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Hepatogastroenterology 1999; 46: 17249.
  • 94
    Lemann M, Zenjari T, Bouhnik Y, et al. Methotrexate in Crohn's disease: long-term efficacy and toxicity. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 17304.
  • 95
    Baron TH, Truss CD, Elson CO. Low-dose oral methotrexate in refractory inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis Sci 1993; 38: 18516.
  • 96
    Feagan BG, Fedorak RN, Irvine EJ, et al. A comparison of methotrexate with placebo for the maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease. North American Crohn's Study Group Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 162732.
  • 97
    Fraser AG, Morton D, McGovern D, Travis S, Jewell DP. The efficacy of methotrexate for maintaining remission in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16: 6937.
  • 98
    Paoluzi OA, Pica R, Marcheggiano A, et al. Azathioprine or methotrexate in the treatment of patients with steroid-dependent or steroid-resistant ulcerative colitis: results of an open-label study on efficacy and tolerability in inducing and maintaining remission. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16: 17519.
  • 99
    Kurnik D, Loebstein R, Fishbein E, et al. Bioavailability of oral vs. subcutaneous low-dose methotrexate in patients with Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 18: 5763.
  • 100
    West SG. Methotrexate hepatotoxicity. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1997; 23: 883915.
  • 101
    Roenigk HH Jr, Auerbach R, Maibach HI, Weinstein GD. Methotrexate in psoriasis: revised guidelines. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988; 19: 14556.
  • 102
    Te HS, Schiano TD, Kuan SF, Hanauer SB, Conjeevaram HS, Baker AL. Hepatic effects of long-term methotrexate use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 31506.
    Direct Link:
  • 103
    Cunliffe RN, Scott BB. Review article: Monitoring for drug side-effects in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16: 64762.
  • 104
    Jarrett P, Ha T, Oliver F. Necrotizing fasciitis complicating disseminated cutaneous herpes zoster. Clin Exp Dermatol 1998; 23: 878.
  • 105
    LeMense GP, Sahn SA. Opportunistic infection during treatment with low dose methotrexate. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994; 150: 25860.
  • 106
    Jansen TL, van Heereveld HA, Laan RF, Barrera P, van de Putte LB. Septic arthritis with Listeria monocytogenes during low-dose methotrexate. J Intern Med 1998; 244: 8790.
  • 107
    Dawson TM, Starkebaum G, Wood BL, Willkens RF, Gown AM. Epstein-Barr virus, methotrexate, and lymphoma in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and primary Sjogren's syndrome: case series. J Rheumatol 2001; 28: 4753.
  • 108
    Bologna C, Picot MC, Jorgensen C, Viu P, Verdier R, Sany J. Study of eight cases of cancer in 426 rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with methotrexate. Ann Rheum Dis 1997; 56: 97102.
  • 109
    Baird RD, van Zyl-Smit RN, Dilke T, Scott SE, Rassam SM. Spontaneous remission of low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma following withdrawal of methotrexate in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis: case report and review of the literature. Br J Haematol 2002; 118: 5678.
  • 110
    Starkebaum G. Rheumatoid arthritis, methotrexate, and lymphoma: risk substitution, or cat and mouse with Epstein-Barr virus? J Rheumatol 2001; 28: 25735.
  • 111
    Ortiz Z, Shea B, Suarez Almazor M, Moher D, Wells G, Tugwell P. Folic acid and folinic acid for reducing side effects in patients receiving methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 00: CD000951.
  • 112
    Ortiz Z, Shea B, Suarez-Almazor ME, Moher D, Wells GA, Tugwell P. The efficacy of folic acid and folinic acid in reducing methotrexate gastrointestinal toxicity in rheumatoid arthritis. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 3643.
  • 113
    van Ede AE, Laan RF, Rood MJ, et al. Effect of folic or folinic acid supplementation on the toxicity and efficacy of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis: a forty-eight week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 151524.
  • 114
    Buckley LM, Vacek PM, Cooper SM. Administration of folinic acid after low dose methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1990; 17: 115861.
  • 115
    Shiroky JB, Neville C, Esdaile JM, et al. Low-dose methotrexate with leucovorin (folinic acid) in the management of rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 1993; 36: 795803.
  • 116
    Goldenberg BA, Rawsthorne P, Bernstein CN. The utility of 6-thioguanine metabolite levels in managing patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99: 17448.
    Direct Link:
  • 117
    Gupta P, Gokhale R, Kirschner BS. 6-Mercaptopurine metabolite levels in children with inflammatory bowel disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2001; 33: 4504.
  • 118
    Mardini HE, Arnold GL. Utility of measuring 6-methylmercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine nucleotide levels in managing inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with 6-mercaptopurine in a clinical practice setting. J Clin Gastroenterol 2003; 36: 3905.
  • 119
    Su CWS, Deren J, Weinberg A, Lichtenstein GR. Measurement of 6-TG Levels with IBD: are all groups identical? Gastroenterology 2002; 122: A78.
  • 120
    Cuffari C. MP, azathioprine metabolite levels predict clinical responsiveness to therapy in IBD. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: A694.
  • 121
    Lichtiger S, Present DH. Preliminary report: cyclosporin in treatment of severe active ulcerative colitis. Lancet 1990; 336: 169.
  • 122
    Hermida-Rodriguez C, Cantero Perona J, Garcia-Valriberas R, Pajares Garcia JM, Mate-Jimenez J. High-dose intravenous cyclosporine in steroid refractory attacks of inflammatory bowel disease. Hepatogastroenterology 1999; 46: 22658.