• 1
    WHO. Global surveillance and control of hepatitis C. J Viral Hep 1999; 6: 3547.
  • 2
    Seeff L. Natural history of chronic hepatitis C. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Management of Hepatitis C: 2002. Hepatology 2002; 36: S3546.
  • 3
    Poynard T, Bedossa P, Opolan P for the OBSVIRC, METAVIR, CLINIVIR and DOSVIRC groups. Natural history of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Lancet 1997; 349: 82532.
  • 4
    Bassett S, Di Bisceglie A, Bacon B, et al. Effects of iron on hepatitis C in Chimpanzees examined. Hepatology 1999; 29: 188492.
  • 5
    Bonkovsky H, Banner B, Rothman A. Iron and chronic viral hepatitis. Hepatology 1997; 27: 75968.
  • 6
    Di Bisceglie A, Axiotis C, Hoofnagle J, et al. Measurements of iron status in patients with chronic hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 210813.
  • 7
    Haque S, Chandra B, Gerber M, et al. Iron overload in patients with chronic hepatitis C: a clinicopathologic study. Hum Pathol 1996; 27: 127781.
  • 8
    Thorburn D, Curry G, Spooner R, et al. The role of iron and haemochromatosis gene mutations in the progression of liver disease in chronic hepatitis C. Gut 2002; 50: 24852.
  • 9
    Metwally M, Zein C, Zein N. Clinical significance of hepatic iron deposition and serum iron values in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Am J of Gastroenterol 2004; 99: 28691.
    Direct Link:
  • 10
    Allison M, Wreghitt T, Palmer C, et al. Evidence for a link between hepatitis C virus infection and diabetes mellitus in a cirrhotic population. J Hepatol 1994; 21: 11359.
  • 11
    Mehta S, Brancati F, Sulkowski M, et al. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among persons with hepatitis C virus infection in the United States. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133: 5929.
  • 12
    Knobler H, Schihmanter R, Zifroni A, et al. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes in noncirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Mayo Clin Proc 2000; 75: 3559.
  • 13
    Alexander G. An association between hepatitis C virus infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus: what is the connection? Ann Intern Med 2000; 133: 6502.
  • 14
    Ford E, Cogswell M. Diabetes and serum ferritin concentration among US adults. Diabetes Care 1999; 22: 197883.
  • 15
    Paris R. Association of hepatitis C and Diabetes Mellitus. Ann Intern Med 2001; 135: 1412.
  • 16
    Furantani M, Nakashima T, Sumida Y, et al. Insulin resistance/beta-cell function and serum ferritin level in non-diabetic patients with hepatitis C virus infection. Liver Int 2003; 23: 2949.
  • 17
    Ishak K, Bapista A, Bianchi L, et al. Histological grading and staging of chronic hepatitis. J Hepatol 1995; 22: 6969.
  • 18
    Piperno A, Vergani A, Malosio I, et al. Hepatic iron overload in patients with chronic viral hepatitis: role of HFE mutations. Hepatology 1998; 28: 11059.
  • 19
    Tung B, Kowdley K. Iron and viral hepatitis. Viral Hepat Rev 1999; 5: 6376.
  • 20
    Kazemi-Shirazi L, Datz C, Maier-Dobersberger T, et al. The relation of iron status and haemochromatosis gene mutations in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: 12734.
  • 21
    Prieto J, Barry M, Sherlock S. Serum ferritin in patients with iron overload and with acute and chronic liver diseases. Gastroenterology 1975; 68: 52533.
  • 22
    Ioannou G, Dominitz J, Weiss N, et al. Racial differences in the relationship between hepatitis C infection and iron stores. Hepatology 2003; 37: 795801.
  • 23
    Ioannou G, Dominitz J, Weiss N, et al. The effects of alcohol consumption on the prevalence of iron overload, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anaemia. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 1293301.
  • 24
    Labropoulou-Karatza C, Goritsas C, Fragopanagou H, et al. High prevalence of diabetes mellitus among adult beta-thalassaemic patients with chronic hepatitis C. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999; 11: 10336.
  • 25
    Searle J, Kerr J, Halliday J, et al. Iron storage disease. In: MacSween, R, et al., eds. Pathology of the Liver, 3rd edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1994: 143989.
  • 26
    Sanyal A, Contos M, Sterling R, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with hepatitis C is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98: 206471.
    Direct Link:
  • 27
    Shintani Y, Fujie H, Miyoshi H, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection and diabetes: direct involvement of the virus in the development of insulin resistance. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 84048.
  • 28
    Aytug S, Reich D, Sapiro L, et al. Impaired IRS-1/P13-kinase signaling in patients with HCV: a mechanism for increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Hepatology 2003; 38: 138492.
  • 29
    Monto A, Alonzo J, Watson J, et al. Steatosis in chronic hepatitis C: relative contributions of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol. Hepatology 2002; 36: 72936.