• 1
    Loftus Jr EV. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: incidence, prevalence, and environmental influences. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 150417.
  • 2
    Jick H, Jick S, Derby LE. Validation of information recorded on general practitioner based computerised data resource in the United Kingdom. BMJ 1991; 302: 76668.
  • 3
    Rubin GP, Hungin AP, Kelly PJ, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology and management in an English general practice population. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000; 14: 15539.
  • 4
    Yapp TR, Stenson R, Thomas GA, et al. Crohn's disease incidence in Cardiff from 1930: an update for 1991–1995. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2000; 12: 90711.
  • 5
    Kenny SJ, Aubert RE, Geiss LS. Prevalence and incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes. In: National Diabetes Data Group. US: National Institutes of Health (U.S.), National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 1995: 4767. NIH Publication No. 95–1468.
  • 6
    García Rodríguez LA, Ruigómez A, Wallander MA, et al. Detection of colorectal tumor and inflammatory bowel disease during follow-up of patients with initial diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. Scand J Gastroenterol 2000; 3: 30611.
  • 7
    Kurina LM, Goldacre MJ, Yeates D, et al. Depression and anxiety in people with inflammatory bowel disease. J Epidemiol Community Health 2001; 55: 71620.
  • 8
    Addolorato G, Capristo E, Stefanini GF, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease: a study of the association between anxiety and depression, physical morbidity, and nutritional status. Scand J Gastroenterol 1997; 32: 101321.
  • 9
    Silverstein MD, Lashner BA, Hanauer SB. Cigarette smoking and ulcerative colitis: a case-control study. Mayo Clin Proc 1994; 69: 4259.
  • 10
    Reif S, Lavy A, Keter D, et al. Lack of association between smoking and Crohn's disease but the usual association with ulcerative colitis in Jewish patients in Israel: a multicenter study. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 4748.
    Direct Link:
  • 11
    Motley RJ, Rhodes J, Ford GA, et al. Time relationships between cessation of smoking and onset of ulcerative colitis. Digestion 1987; 37: 1257.
  • 12
    Koutroubakis IE, Vlachonikolis IG, Kouroumalis EA. Role of appendicitis and appendectomy in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis: a critical review. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2002; 8: 27786.
  • 13
    Derby LE, Jick H. Appendectomy protects against ulcerative colitis. Epidemiology 1998; 9: 2057.
  • 14
    Forrest K, Symmons D, Foster P. Systematic review: is ingestion of paracetamol or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs associated with exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 20: 103543.