• 1
    Klinkenberg-Knol EC, Festen HP, Jansen JB, et al. Long-term treatment with omeprazole for refractory reflux esophagitis: efficacy and safety. Ann Intern Med 1994; 121: 1617.
  • 2
    Klinkenberg-Knol EC, Nelis F, Dent J, et al. Long-term omeprazole treatment in resistant gastroesophageal reflux disease: efficacy, safety, and influence on gastric mucosa. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: 6619.
  • 3
    Kuipers EJ, Lundell L, Klinkenberg-Knol EC, et al. Atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with reflux esophagitits treated with omeprazole or fundoplication. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 101822.
  • 4
    Kuipers EJ, Uyterlinde AM, Pena AS, et al. Long-term sequelae of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Lancet 1995; 345: 15258.
  • 5
    Stolte M, Meining A, Schmitz JM, Alexandridis T, Seifert E. Changes in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in the antrum and corpus during 12 months of treatment with omeprazole and lansoprazole in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998; 12: 24753.
  • 6
    Logan RP, Walker MM, Misiewicz JJ, Gummett PA, Karim QN, Baron JH. Changes in the intragastric distribution of Helicobacter pylori during treatment with omeprazole. Gut 1995; 36: 126.
  • 7
    Larkin CJ, Watson RGP, Sloan JM, Stevenson M, Ardill JES, Buchanan D. Distribution of atrophy in Helicobacter pylori-infected subjects taking proton pump inhibitors. Scand J Gastroenterol 2000; 35: 57882.
  • 8
    Eissele R, Brunner G, Simon B, Solcia E, Arnold R. Gastric mucosa during treatment with lansoprazole. Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for argyrophil-cell hyperplasia. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 70717.
  • 9
    Schenk BE, Kuipers EJ, Nelis GF, et al. Effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on chronic gastritis during omeprazole therapy. Gut 2000; 46: 61521.
  • 10
    Waldum HL, Brenna E. Personal review: is profound acid inhibition safe? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000; 14: 1522.
  • 11
    Lundell L, Miettinen P, Myrvold HE, et al. The Nordic GERD Study Group. Lack of effects of acid suppression therapy on gastric atrophy. Gastroenterology 1999; 117: 31926.
  • 12
    Gray JD, Shiner M. Influence of gastric pH on gastric and jejunal flora. Gut 1967; 8: 57481.
  • 13
    Gianella RA, Broitman SA, Zamcheck N. Gastric acid barrier to ingested microorganisms in man: studies in vivo and in vitro. Gut 1972; 13: 2516.
  • 14
    Wilder-Smith CH, Spirig C, Krech T, Merki HS. Bactericidal factors in gastric juice. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1992; 4: 88591.
  • 15
    Houben GMP, Stockbrügger RW. Bacteria in the aetio-pathogenesis of gastric cancer: a review. Scand J Gastroenterol 1995; 30(Suppl. 212): 138.
  • 16
    Sandmark S, Carlsson R, Fausa O, Lundell L. Omeprazole or ranitidine in the treatment of reflux esophagitis? Results of a double blind, randomised Scandinavian Multicentre Study. Scand J Gastroenterol 1988; 23: 62532.
  • 17
    Sevier AC, Munger BL. Technical note: a silver method for paraffin sections of neural tissue. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1965; 24: 1305.
  • 18
    Grimelius L, Wilander E. Silver stain in the study of endocrine cells of the gut and pancreas. Invest Cell Pathol 1980; 3: 312.
  • 19
    Price AB. The Sydney System: histological division. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1991; 6: 20922.
  • 20
    Solcia E, Rindi G, Havu N, Elm G. Qualitative study on gastric endocrine cells in patients treated long-term with omeprazole. Scand J Gastroenterol 1989; 24: 12937.
  • 21
    Marzio L, Biasco G, Cifani F, et al. Short- and long-term omeprazole for the treatment and prevention of duodenal ulcer and effect on Helicobacter pylori. Am J Gastroenterol 1995; 12: 21726.
  • 22
    Hui VM, Lam SK, Ho J, et al. Effect of omeprazole on duodenal ulcer-associated antral gastritis and Helicobacter pylori. Dig Dis Sci 1991; 36: 57782.
  • 23
    Stolte M, Bethke B, Blum Al, Sulser E, Stadelman O. Antacid treatment has deleterious effect on the severity and activity of gastritis of the corpus mucosa. Ir J Med Sci 1992; 161(Suppl. 10): 6.
  • 24
    Ruiz B, Correa P, Fontham ET, Ramakrishnan T. Antral atrophy, Helicobacter pylori colonization and gastric pH. Am Clin Pathol 1996; 105: 96101.
  • 25
    Verdu EF, Armstrong D, Idstrom JP, et al. Intragastric pH during treatment with omeprazole: Role of Helicobacter pylori and H. Pylori-associated gastritis. Scand J Gastroenterol 1996; 31: 11516.
  • 26
    Suzuki M, Miurq S, Suematsu M, et al. Helicobacter pylori-associated ammonia production enhances neutrophili-dependent gastric mucosal cell injury. Am J Physiol 1992; 263: G71925.
  • 27
    Tsujii M, Kavano S, Tsujii S, Fusamoto H, Kamada T, Sato N. Mechanism of gastric mucosal damage induced by ammonia. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 18818.
  • 28
    Ricci V, Sommi P, Fiocca R, et al. Cytotoxity of Helicobacter pylori on human gastric epithelial cells in vitro: role of cytotoxin(s) and ammonia. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1993; 5: 68794.
  • 29
    Chan WY, Hui PK, Leung KM. Modes of Helicobacter pylori colonisation and gastric epithelial damage. Histopathology 1992; 21: 5218.
  • 30
    McColl KEL, Murray LS, Gillen D. Omeprazole and accelerated onset of atrophic gastritis. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: 239.
  • 31
    Kuipers EJ, Klinkenberg-Knol EC, Meuwissen SGM. Omeprazole and accelerated onset of atrophic gastritis. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: 23940.
  • 32
    McColl KEL Helicobacter pylori infection and the long term proton pump inhibitor therapy. Gut 2004; 53: 57.
  • 33
    Filipe MI, Munoz N, Matko I, et al. Intestinal metaplasia types and the risk of gastric cancer: A cohort study in Slovenia. Int J Cancer 1994; 57: 3249.
  • 34
    Correa P, Cuello C, Duqque E. Carcinoma and intestinal metaplasia in the stomach of Columbian migrates. J Natl Cancer Inst 1970; 44: 297306.
  • 35
    Solcia E, Fiocca R, Luinetti O, et al. Intestinal and diffuse gastric cancers arise in a different background of Helicobacter pylori gastritis through different gene involvement. Am J Surg Pathol 1996; 20(Suppl. 1): S822.
  • 36
    Filipe MI. Borderline lesions of the gastric epithelium. New indications of cancer risk and clinical implication. In: FenoglioPM, WulffRF, eds. Progressive Surgical Pathology, Vol. 12. New York: Field and Wood, 1992: 26990.
  • 37
    Kuipers EJ, Nelis GF, Klinkenberg-Knol EC, et al. Cure of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with reflux oesophagitis treated with long-term omeprazole reverses gastritis without exacerbation of reflux disease: results of a randomised controlled trial. Gut 2004; 53: 1220.
  • 38
    Malfertheiner P, Megraud F, O'Morain C, et al. Current concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection – the Maastricht 2–2000 consensus report. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16: 67180.
  • 39
    Drasar BS, Shiner M, McLeod GM. Studies on the intestinal flora. The bacterial flora of the gastrointestinal tract in healthy and achlorhydric persons. Gastroenterology 1969; 56: 719.
  • 40
    Stockbrügger RW. Bacterial overgrowth as a consequence of reduced gastric acidity. Scand J Gastroenterol 1985; 20(Suppl. 111): 716.
  • 41
    Yeomans ND, Brimblecombe RW, Elder J, et al. Effects of acid suppression on microbial flora of upper gut. Dig Dis Sci 1995; 40(Suppl. 2): 8195.
  • 42
    Laine L, Ahnen D, McClain C, Solcia E, Walsh JH. Review article: potential gastrointestinal effects of long-term acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000; 14: 65168.
  • 43
    Mowat C, Williams C, Gillen D, et al. Omeprazole, Helicobacter pylori status and alterations in intragastric milieu facilitating bacterial N-nitrosation. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 33947.
  • 44
    Lundell L, Miettinen P, Myrvold HE, et al. Continued (5 year) follow up of a randomised clinical study comparing antireflux surgery and omeprazole in gastroesophageal reflux disease. J Am Coll Surg 1999; 192: 1729.
  • 45
    Birkholz S, Knipp U, Nietzki C, et al. Immunological activity of lipopolysacccharide of Helicobacter pylori on human peripheral blood cells in comparison to lipopolysaccharides of other intestinal bacteria. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1993; 6: 31724.
  • 46
    Perez-Perez GI, Sheperd VI, Morrow JD, Blaser MJ. Activation of human THP-1 cells and rat bone marrow-derived macrophages by Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide. Infect Immun 1995; 63: 11837.
  • 47
    Sanduleanu S, Jonkers D, de Bruïne A, Hameeteman W, Stockbrügger RW. Double gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and non-Helicobacter pylori bacteria during acid-suppressive therapy: increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines and development of atrophic gastritis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001; 15: 116375.
  • 48
    Bordi C, Ravazzola M, DeVita O. Pathology of endocrine cells in gastric mucosa. Ann Pathol 1982; 3: 1928.
  • 49
    Bordi C, D'Adda T, Baggi MT, Pilato FP. Structure and function of endocrine cells in the oxyntic (acid secreting) mucosa of human stomach. Scand J Gastroenterol 1989; 24: 115.
  • 50
    Creuzfeldt W. The ahclorhydria-carcinoid sequence. Role of gastrin. Digestion 1988; 39: 6179.
  • 51
    Eissele R, Brunner G, Simon B, Solcia E, Arnold R. Gastric mucosa during treatment with lansoprazole: Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for argyrofil cell hyperplasia. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 70717.
  • 52
    Havu N, Maaroos H-I, Sipponen P. Argyrophil cell hyperplasia associated with chronic corpus gastritis in gastric ulcer disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 1991; 26(Suppl. 186): 904.
  • 53
    Maaroos H-I, Havu N, Sipponen P. Follow-up of Helicobacter pylori positive gastritis and argyrophil cells during the natural course of gastric ulcer. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89: 13516.
  • 54
    Sanduleanu S, de Bruïne A, Stridsberg M, et al. Serum chromogranin A as a screening test for gastric enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia during acid-suppressive therapy. Eur J Clin Invest 2001; 31: 80211.
  • 55
    Syversen U, Ramstad H, Gamme K, Qvigstad G, Falkmer S, Waldum HL. Clinical significance of elevated serum chromogranin A levels. Scand J Gastroenterol 2004; 39: 96973.