• 1
    Jones EA. Fatigue complicating chronic liver disease. Metab Brain Dis 2004; 19: 4219.
  • 2
    Witt-Sullivan H, Heathcote J, Cauch K, et al. The demography of primary biliary cirrhosis in Ontario, Canada. Hepatology 1990; 12: 98105.
  • 3
    Cauch-Dudek K, Abbey S, Stewart DE, Heathcote EJ. Fatigue in primary biliary cirrhosis. Gut 1998; 43: 70510.
  • 4
    Wessely S, Pariante C. Fatigue, depression and chronic hepatitis C. Psychol Med 2002; 32: 110.
  • 5
    Bailey SP, Davis JM, Ahlborn EN. Neuroendocrine and substrate responses to altered brain 5-HT activity during prolonged exercise to fatigue. J Appl Physiol 1993; 74: 300612.
  • 6
    Wilson WM, Maughan RJ. Evidence for a possible role of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine in the genesis of fatigue in man: administration of paroxetine, a 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor, reduces the capacity to perform prolonged exercise. Exp Physiol 1992; 77: 9214.
  • 7
    Jones EA. Fatigue associated with chronic liver disease: a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma. Hepatology 1995; 22: 16068.
  • 8
    Jones EA, Yurdaydin C. Is fatigue associated with cholestasis mediated by altered central neurotransmission? Hepatology 1997; 25: 4924.
  • 9
    Jones EA. Altered central serotoninergic neurotransmission: A potential mechanism for profound fatigue complicating chronic hepatitis C. Med Hypotheses 2001; 57: 1334.
  • 10
    Jones EA. Relief from profound fatigue associated with chronic liver disease by long-term ondansetron therapy. Lancet 1999; 354: 397.
  • 11
    Theal JJ, Toosi MN, Girlan L, et al. A randomized, controlled crossover trial of ondansetron in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and fatigue. Hepatology 2005; 41: 130512.
  • 12
    Schwartz JE, Jandorf L, Krupp LB. The measurement of fatigue: a new instrument. J Psychosom Res 1993; 37: 75362.
  • 13
    Fisk JD, Ritvo PG, Ross L, Haase DA, Marrie TJ, Schlech WF. Measuring the functional impact of fatigue: initial validation of the Fatigue Impact Scale. Clin Infect Dis 1994; 18 (Suppl): S7983.
  • 14
    Elkins LE, Krupp LB, Scherl W. The measurement of fatigue and contributing neuropsychiatric factors. Semin Clin Neuropsychol 2000; 5: 5861.
  • 15
    Kleinman L, Zodat MW, Hakim Z, Aledort J, Barker C, Chank D. Psychometric evaluation of the fatigue severity scale for use in chronic hepatitis C. Qual Life Res 2000; 9: 499508.
  • 16
    Prince MI, James OF, Holland NP, Jones DE. Validation of a fatigue impact score in primary biliary cirrhosis: Towards a standard for clinical and trial use. J Hepatol 2000; 32: 36873.
  • 17
    McCormack HM, de L'Horne DJ, Sheather S. Clinical applications of visual analogue scales: a critical review. Psychol Med 1988; 18: 100719.
  • 18
    Jones EA. Trials of opiate antagonists for the pruritus of cholestasis: primary efficacy endpoints and opioid withdrawal-like reactions. J Hepatol 2002; 37: 8645.
  • 19
    Talbot TL, Schmitt JM, Bergasa NV, Jones EA, Walker EC. Application of piezofilm technology for the quantitative assessment of pruritus. Biomed Instrum Technol 1991; 25: 4003.
  • 20
    Molenaar HAJ, Oosting J, Jones EA. Improved device for measuring scratching activity in patients with pruritus. Med Biol Eng Comput 1998; 36: 2204.
  • 21
    Bergasa NV, Talbot TL, Alling DW, et al. A controlled trial of naloxone infusions for the pruritus of cholestasis. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 5449.
  • 22
    Bergasa NV, Alling DW, Talbot TL, et al. Effects of naloxone infusions in patients with the pruritus of cholestasis: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1995; 123: 1617.
  • 23
    Bergasa NV, Schmitt JM, Talbot TL, et al. Open label trial of oral nalmefene therapy for the pruritus of cholestasis. Hepatology 1998; 27: 67984.
  • 24
    Bergasa NV, Alling DW, Talbot TL, Wells MC, Jones EA. Oral nalmefene therapy reduces scratching activity due to the pruritus of cholestasis: a controlled study. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999; 41: 4314.
  • 25
    Bruce RA. Exercise testing of patients with coronary disease. Principles and normal standards for evaluation. Ann Clin Res 1971; 3: 32332.
  • 26
    Jalan R, Gibson H, Lombard MG. Patients with PBC have central but not peripheral fatigue. Gut 1996; 39 (Suppl. 1): A30.
  • 27
    Goldblatt J, James OF, Jones DE. Grip strength and subjective fatigue in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. J Am Med Assoc 2001; 285: 21967.
  • 28
    Feinstein AR. An additional basic science for clinical medicine: II. The limitations of randomized trials. Ann Intern Med 1983; 99: 54450.
  • 29
    Le Fanu J. Twelve defining moments. Looking to the future. In: The Rise and Fall of Modern Medicine. London: Little, Brown and Company, 1999: 57 and 406–7.
  • 30
    Goldman GM. The tacit dimension of clinical judgement. Yale J Biol Med 1990; 63: 4761.
  • 31
    Tanenbaum SJ. What physicians know. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 126871.