• 1
    Pashankar D, Bishop WP. Efficacy and optimal dose of daily polyethylene glycol 3350 for treatment of constipation and encopresis in children. J Pediar Gastroenterol Nutr 2001; 139: 42832.
  • 2
    Attar A, Lemann M, Ferguson A, et al. Comparison of a low dose polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution with lactulose for treatment of chronic constipation. Gut 1999; 44: 22630.
  • 3
    Bouhnik Y, Neut C, Raskina L et al. Prospective, randomized, parallel-group trial to evaluate the effects of lactulose and polyethylene glycol-4000 on colonic flora in chronic idiopathic constipation. Alimnt Pharmacol Ther 2004; 19: 88917.
  • 4
    Botto L, Moore CA, Khoury MJ, Erickson JD. Neural tube defects. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 150919.
  • 5
    Mitchell LE, Adzick NS, Melchionne J, Pasquariello PS, Sutton LN, Whitehead AS. Spina bifida. Lancet 2004; 364: 188595.
  • 6
    O'Rahilly R, Muller F. The two sites of fusion of the neural folds and the two neuropores in the human embryo. Teratol 2002; 65: 16270.
  • 7
    International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems. Annual Report 1998 with Data for 1996. Rome: International Centre for Birth Defects, 1998.
  • 8
    Palmer LS, Richards I, Kaplan WE. Transrectal electrostimulation therapy for neuropathic bowel dysfunction in children with myelomeningocele. J Urol 1997; 157: 144952.
  • 9
    Webb HW, Barraza MA, Stevens PS, Crump JM, Erhard M. Bowel dysfunction in spina bifida – an American experience with the ACE procedure. Eur J Pediatr Surg 1998; 8(S1): 3738.
  • 10
    Freedman MD, Schwartz HJ, Roby R, Fleisher S. Tolerance and efficacy of polyethylene glycol 3350/electrolyte solution versus lactulose in relieving opiate induced constipation: a double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Pharm 1997; 37: 9047.
  • 11
    Corazziari E, Badiali D, Bazzocchi G, et al. Long term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of low daily doses of isosmotic polyethylene glycol electrolyte balanced solution (PMF-100) in the treatment of functional chronic constipation. Gut 2000; 46: 5226.
  • 12
    Hammer HF, Santa Ana CA, Schiller LR, et al. Studies of osmotic diarrhea induced in normal subjects by ingestion of polyethylene glycol and lactulose. J Clin Invest 1989; 84: 105662.
  • 13
    Voskuijl W, de Lorijn F, Verwijs W et al. PEG 3350 (Transipeg) versus lactulose in the treatment of childhood functional constipation: a double blind, randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Gut 2004; 53: 15904.
  • 14
    Di Palma JA, DeRidder PH, Orlando RC. A randomized, placebo-controlled, multi centre study of the safety and efficacy of a new polyethylene glycol laxative. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 44650.
    Direct Link:
  • 15
    Staiano A. Use of polyethylene glycol solution in functional and organic constipation in children. Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999; 31(S3): S2603.
  • 16
    Drossman DA (ed.) The Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Boston: Little, Brown, 1994: 11573.
  • 17
    Staiano A, Del Giudice E, Farinucci A. Diagnosis and management of upper gastrointestinal dysfunction in children with neurological and neuromuscular diseases. In: Corazziari, E, ed. Neuro Gastroenterology. Berlin-New York: De Gruyter, 1996: 34957.
  • 18
    Baker SS, Liptak GS, Colletti RB. Constipation in infants and children: evaluation and treatment-a medical position statement of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. J Ped Gastroenterol Nutr 1999; 29: 61226.
  • 19
    Thompson WG. Laxatives: clinical pharmacology and practical use. Drugs 1980; 19: 4958.
  • 20
    Dupont C, Leluyer B, Maamri N, et al. Double-blind randomized evaluation of clinical and biological tolerance of polyethylene glycol 4000 versus lactulose in constipated children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2005; 41: 62533.
  • 21
    Chaussade S. Mechanisms of action of low doses of polyethylene glycol in the treatment of functional constipation. Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999; 31(S3): S4244.
  • 22
    Costa M, Brookes SJK, Steele PA, Gibbins I, Burcher E, Kandiah CJ. Neurochemical classification of myenteric neurons in the guinea-pig ileum. Neuroscience 1996; 75: 94967.
  • 23
    Holzer P, Holzer-Petsche U. Tackykinins in the gut. Part I. Expression, release and motor function. Pharmacol Ther 1977; 73: 173217.
  • 24
    Loening-Baucke V. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes for children with constipation and encopresis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2002; 34: 3727.
  • 25
    Tonini M. Polyethylene glycol as non-absorbable prokinetic agent in the lower gastrointestinal tract. Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999; 31(S3): S23841.
  • 26
    Pashankar DS, Bishop WP. Efficacy and optimal dose of daily polyethylene glycol 3350 for treatment of constipation and encopresis in children. J Pediatr 2001; 139: 42832.
  • 27
    Gremse DA, Hixon J, Crutchfield A. Comparison of polyethylene glycol 3350 and lactulose for treatment of chronic constipation in children. Clin Pediat (Phila) 2002; 41: 2259.