SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Pearson DC, May GR, Fick GH, et al. Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine in Crohn disease. A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1995; 123: 13242.
  • 2
    Adler DJ, Korelitz BI. The therapeutic efficacy of 6-mercaptopurine in refractory ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 1990; 85: 71722.
  • 3
    Hawthorne AB, Logan RF, Hawkey CJ, et al. Randomised controlled trial of azathioprine withdrawal in ulcerative colitis. BMJ 1992; 305: 202.
  • 4
    Sandborn W, Sutherland L, Pearson D, et al. Azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine for inducing remission of Crohn's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; CD000545.
  • 5
    Gearry RB, Barclay ML, Burt MJ, et al. Thiopurine drug adverse effects in a population of New Zealand patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2004; 13: 5637.
  • 6
    Bouhnik Y, Lemann M, Mary JY, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with Crohn's disease treated with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine. Lancet 1996; 347: 2159.
  • 7
    Connell WR, Kamm MA, Ritchie JK, et al. Bone marrow toxicity caused by azathioprine in inflammatory bowel disease: 27 years of experience. Gut 1993; 34: 10815.
  • 8
    Lennard L, Lilleyman JS. Individualizing therapy with 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine related to the thiopurine methyltransferase genetic polymorphism. Ther Drug Monit 1996; 18: 32834.
  • 9
    Tiede I, Fritz G, Strand S, et al. CD28-dependent Rac1 activation is the molecular target of azathioprine in primary human CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Clin Invest 2003; 111: 113345.
  • 10
    Erb N, Harms DO, Janka-Schaub G. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of thiopurines in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving 6-thioguanine versus 6-mercaptopurine. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1998; 42: 26672.
  • 11
    Hindorf U, Peterson C, Almer S. Assessment of thiopurine methyltransferase and metabolite formation during thiopurine therapy: results from a large Swedish patient population. Ther Drug Monit 2004; 26: 6738.
  • 12
    Dervieux T, Blanco JG, Krynetski EY, et al. Differing contribution of thiopurine methyltransferase to mercaptopurine versus thioguanine effects in human leukemic cells. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 58106.
  • 13
    Coulthard SA, Hogarth LA, Little M, et al. The effect of thiopurine methyltransferase expression on sensitivity to thiopurine drugs. Mol Pharmacol 2002; 62: 1029.
  • 14
    Dubinsky MC, Lamothe S, Yang HY, et al. Pharmacogenomics and metabolite measurement for 6-mercaptopurine therapy in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: 70513.
  • 15
    Dubinsky MC, Yang H, Hassard PV, et al. 6-MP metabolite profiles provide a biochemical explanation for 6-MP resistance in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 90415.
  • 16
    Nygaard U, Schmiegelow K. Methylated metabolites of 6-mercaptopurine are associated with hepatotoxicity. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 75: 27481.
  • 17
    Schaeffeler E, Fischer C, Brockmeier D, et al. Comprehensive analysis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase phenotype-genotype correlation in a large population of German-Caucasians and identification of novel TPMT variants. Pharmacogenetics 2004; 14: 40717.
  • 18
    Lindqvist M, Haglund S, Almer S, et al. Identification of two novel sequence variants affecting thiopurine methyltransferase enzyme activity. Pharmacogenetics 2004; 14: 2615.
  • 19
    Evans WE, Horner M, Chu YQ, et al. Altered mercaptopurine metabolism, toxic effects, and dosage requirement in a thiopurine methyltransferase-deficient child with acute lymphocytic leukemia. J Pediatr 1991; 119: 9859.
  • 20
    Evans WE, Hon YY, Bomgaars L, et al. Preponderance of thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficiency and heterozygosity among patients intolerant to mercaptopurine or azathioprine. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19: 2293301.
  • 21
    Schutz E, Gummert J, Mohr F, et al. Azathioprine-induced myelosuppression in thiopurine methyltransferase deficient heart transplant recipient. Lancet 1993; 341: 436.
  • 22
    Relling MV, Hancock ML, Rivera GK, et al. Mercaptopurine therapy intolerance and heterozygosity at the thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene locus. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999; 91: 20018.
  • 23
    Black AJ, McLeod HL, Capell HA, et al. Thiopurine methyltransferase genotype predicts therapy-limiting severe toxicity from azathioprine. Ann Intern Med 1998; 129: 7168.
  • 24
    Ansari A, Hassan C, Duley J, et al. Thiopurine methyltransferase activity and the use of azathioprine in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16: 174350.
  • 25
    Hindorf U, Lindqvist M, Peterson C, et al. Pharmacogenetics during standardized initiation of thiopurine therapy in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 2006; March 16 (Epub ahead of print).
  • 26
    Schwab M, Schäffeler E, Marx C, et al. Azathioprine therapy and adverse drug reactions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: impact of thiopurine S-methyltransferase polymorphism. Pharmacogenetics 2002; 12: 42936.
  • 27
    Pettersson B, Almer S, Albertioni F, et al. Differences between children and adults in thiopurine methyltransferase activity and metabolite formation during thiopurine therapy: possible role of concomitant methotrexate. Ther Drug Monit 2002; 24: 3518.
  • 28
    Haglund S, Lindqvist M, Almer S, et al. Pyrosequencing of TPMT alleles in a general Swedish population and in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Chem 2004; 50: 28895.
  • 29
    Sandborn WJ. A review of immune modifier therapy for inflammatory bowel disease: azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, cyclosporine, and methotrexate. Am J Gastroenterol 1996; 91: 42333.
  • 30
    Marinaki AM, Ansari A, Duley JA, et al. Adverse drug reactions to azathioprine therapy are associated with polymorphism in the gene encoding inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPase). Pharmacogenetics 2004; 14: 1817.
  • 31
    Sturdevant RA, Singleton JW, Deren JL, et al. Azathioprine-related pancreatitis in patients with Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 1979; 77: 8836.
  • 32
    Haber CJ, Meltzer SJ, Present DH, et al. Nature and course of pancreatitis caused by 6-mercaptopurine in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 1986; 91: 9826.
  • 33
    Colombel JF, Ferrari N, Debuysere H, et al. Genotypic analysis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase in patients with Crohn's disease and severe myelosuppression during azathioprine therapy. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: 102530.
  • 34
    Kaskas BA, Louis E, Hindorf U, et al. Safe treatment of thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficient Crohn's disease patients with azathioprine. Gut 2003; 52: 1402.
  • 35
    Bowen DG, Selby WS. Use of 6-mercaptopurine in patients with inflammatory bowel disease previously intolerant of azathioprine. Dig Dis Sci 2000; 45: 18103.
  • 36
    Lémann M, Bouhnik Y, Kmieciak-Le Corguille M, et al. Treatment of Crohn‘s disease (CD) with 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) in patients intolerant to azathioprine (AZA). Gastroenterology 1997; 112: A1025.
  • 37
    Domenech E, Nos P, Papo M, et al. 6-mercaptopurine in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and previous digestive intolerance of azathioprine. Scand J Gastroenterol 2005; 40: 525.
  • 38
    McGovern DP, Travis SP, Duley J, et al. Azathioprine intolerance in patients with IBD may be imidazole-related and is independent of TPMT activity. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 8389.
  • 39
    Alexander S, Dowling D. Azathioprine pancreatitis in inflammatory bowel disease and successful subsequent treatment with mercaptopurine. Intern Med J 2005; 35: 5701.
  • 40
    Lowry PW, Franklin CL, Weaver AL, et al. Leucopenia resulting from a drug interaction between azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine and mesalamine, sulphasalazine, or balsalazide. Gut 2001; 49: 65664.
  • 41
    Gilissen LP, Bierau J, Derijks LJ, et al. The pharmacokinetic effect of discontinuation of mesalazine on mercaptopurine metabolite levels in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005; 22: 60511.
  • 42
    Von Ahsen N, Armstrong VW, Behrens C, et al. Association of inosine triphosphatase 94C>A and thiopurine S-methyltransferase deficiency with adverse events and study drop-outs under azathioprine therapy in a prospective Crohn Disease Study. Clin Chem 2005; 51: 22828.