• 1
    Maddrey WC, Boitnott JK, Bedine MS, Weber FL Jr, Mezey E, White RI Jr. Corticosteroid therapy of alcoholic hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1978; 75: 1939.
  • 2
    O’Shea RS, McCullough AJ. Treatment of alcoholic hepatitis. Clin Liver Dis 2005; 9: 10334.
  • 3
    Bosch J, Garcia-Pagan JC. Complications of cirrhosis I. Portal hypertension. J Hepatol 2000; 32: 14156.
  • 4
    Krogsgaard K, Christensen E, Gluud C, Henriksen JH, Christoffersen P. Variables predicting elevated portal pressure in alcoholic liver disease. Results of a multivariate analysis. Scand J Gastroenterol 1987; 22: 826.
  • 5
    Krogsgaard K, Gluud C, Henriksen JH, Christoffersen P. Correlation between liver morphology and portal pressure in alcoholic liver disease. Hepatology 1984; 4: 699703.
  • 6
    Poynard T, Degott C, Munoz C, Lebrec D. Relationship between degree of portal hypertension and liver histologic lesions in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Effect of acute alcoholic hepatitis on portal hypertension. Dig Dis Sci 1987; 32: 33743.
  • 7
    Kaneda K, Ekataksin W, Sogawa M, Matsumura A, Cho A, Kawada N. Endothelin-1-induced vasoconstriction causes a significant increase in portal pressure of rat liver: localized constrictive effect on the distal segment of preterminal portal venules as revealed by light and electron microscopy and serial reconstruction. Hepatology 1998; 27: 73547.
  • 8
    Ballet F, Chretien Y, Rey C, Poupon R. Differential response of normal and cirrhotic liver to vasoactive agents. A study in the isolated perfused rat liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1988; 244: 2839.
  • 9
    Mittal MK, Gupta TK, Lee FY, Sieber CC, Groszmann RJ. Nitric oxide modulates hepatic vascular tone in normal rat liver. Am J Physiol 1994; 267: G41622.
  • 10
    Mookerjee RP, Sen S, Davies NA, Hodges SJ, Williams R, Jalan R. Tumour necrosis factor alpha is an important mediator of portal and systemic haemodynamic derangements in alcoholic hepatitis. Gut 2003; 52: 11827.
  • 11
    Perello A, Escorsell A, Bru C, et al. Wedged hepatic venous pressure adequately reflects portal pressure in hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis. Hepatology 1999; 30: 13937.
  • 12
    Valla D, Bercoff E, Menu Y, Bataille C, Lebrec D. Discrepancy between wedged hepatic venous pressure and portal venous pressure after acute propranolol administration in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 1984; 86: 14003.
  • 13
    Ripoll C, Banares R, Rincon D, et al. Influence of hepatic venous pressure gradient on the prediction of survival of patients with cirrhosis in the MELD era. Hepatology 2005; 42: 793801.
  • 14
    Garcia-Tsao G, Groszmann RJ, Fisher RL, Conn HO, Atterbury CE, Glickman M. Portal pressure, presence of gastroesophageal varices and variceal bleeding. Hepatology 1985; 5: 41924.
  • 15
    Bruix J, Castells A, Bosch J, et al. Surgical resection of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients: prognostic value of preoperative portal pressure. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 101822.
  • 16
    Groszmann RJ, Garcia-Tsao G, Bosch J, et al. Beta-blockers to prevent gastroesophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 225461.
  • 17
    Abraldes JG, Tarantino I, Turnes J, Garcia-Pagan JC, Rodes J, Bosch J. Hemodynamic response to pharmacological treatment of portal hypertension and long-term prognosis of cirrhosis. Hepatology 2003; 37: 9028.
  • 18
    Vorobioff J, Groszmann RJ, Picabea E, et al. Prognostic value of hepatic venous pressure gradient measurements in alcoholic cirrhosis: a 10-year prospective study. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 7019.
  • 19
    Gluud C, Henriksen JH, Nielsen G. Prognostic indicators in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Hepatology 1988; 8: 2227.
  • 20
    Swan HJ, Ganz W, Forrester J, Marcus H, Diamond G, Chonette D. Catheterization of the heart in man with use of a flow-directed balloon-tipped catheter. N Engl J Med 1970; 283: 44751.
  • 21
    Lebrec D, Hillon P, Munoz C, Goldfarb G, Nouel O, Benhamou JP. The effect of propranolol on portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis: a hemodynamic study. Hepatology 1982; 2: 5237.
  • 22
    Banares R, Alonso S, Catalina MV, et al. Randomized controlled trial of aspiration needle vs. automated biopsy device for transjugular liver biopsy. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2001; 12: 5837.
  • 23
    Kamath PS, Wiesner RH, Malinchoc M, et al. A model to predict survival in patients with end-stage liver disease. Hepatology 2001; 33: 46470.
  • 24
    Spahr L, Giostra E, Frossard JL, Bresson-Hadni S, Rubbia-Brandt L, Hadengue A. Soluble TNF-R1, but not tumor necrosis factor alpha, predicts the 3-month mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. J Hepatol 2004; 41: 22934.
  • 25
    Mathurin P, Abdelnour M, Ramond MJ, et al. Early change in bilirubin levels is an important prognostic factor in severe alcoholic hepatitis treated with prednisolone. Hepatology 2003; 38: 13639.
  • 26
    Duvoux C, Radier C, Roudot-Thoraval F, et al. Low-grade steatosis and major changes in portal flow as new prognostic factors in steroid-treated alcoholic hepatitis. Hepatology 2004; 40: 13708.
  • 27
    Srikureja W, Kyulo NL, Runyon BA, Hu KQ. MELD score is a better prognostic model than Child–Turcotte–Pugh score or Discriminant Function score in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. J Hepatol 2005; 42: 7006.
  • 28
    Dunn W, Jamil LH, Brown LS, et al. MELD accurately predicts mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Hepatology 2005; 41: 3538.
  • 29
    Ananth CV, Kleinbaum DG. Regression models for ordinal responses: a review of methods and applications. Int J Epidemiol 1997; 26: 132333.
  • 30
    Lopez-Talavera JC, Merrill WW, Groszmann RJ. Tumor necrosis factor alpha: a major contributor to the hyperdynamic circulation in prehepatic portal-hypertensive rats. Gastroenterology 1995; 108: 7617.
  • 31
    Chu CJ, Lee FY, Wang SS, et al. Hyperdynamic circulation of cirrhotic rats with ascites: role of endotoxin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide. Clin Sci (Lond) 1997; 93: 21925.
  • 32
    Bird GL, Sheron N, Goka AK, Alexander GJ, Williams RS. Increased plasma tumor necrosis factor in severe alcoholic hepatitis. Ann Intern Med 1990; 112: 91720.
  • 33
    Lopez-Talavera JC, Cadelina G, Olchowski J, Merrill W, Groszmann RJ. Thalidomide inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha, decreases nitric oxide synthesis, and ameliorates the hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome in portal-hypertensive rats. Hepatology 1996; 23: 161621.
  • 34
    Catalina MV, Barrio J, Anaya F, et al. Hepatic and systemic haemodynamic changes after MARS in patients with acute on chronic liver failure. Liver Int 2003; 23: 3943.
  • 35
    Orrego H, Blendis LM, Crossley IR, et al. Correlation of intrahepatic pressure with collagen in the Disse space and hepatomegaly in humans and in the rat. Gastroenterology 1981; 80: 54656.
  • 36
    Blendis LM, Orrego H, Crossley IR, Blake JE, Medline A, Isreal Y. The role of hepatocyte enlargement in hepatic pressure in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic alcoholic liver disease. Hepatology 1982; 2: 53946.
  • 37
    Lebrec D, Nouel O, Bernuau J, Rueff B, Benhamou JP. Portal hypertension in fulminant viral hepatitis. Gut 1980; 21: 9624.
  • 38
    Navasa M, Garcia-Pagan JC, Bosch J, et al. Portal hypertension in acute liver failure. Gut 1992; 33: 9658.