• 1
    Liaw YF, Sung JJY, Chow WC, et al. Lamivudine for patients with chronic hepatitis B and advanced liver disease. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 152131.
  • 2
    Dienstag JL, Goldin RD, Heathcote EJ, et al. Histological outcome during long-term lamivudine therapy. Gastroenterology 2003; 124: 10517.
  • 3
    Lai CL, Dienstag J, Schiff E, et al. Prevalence and clinical correlates of YMDD variants during lamivudine therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis B. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36: 68796.
  • 4
    Chan HLY, Leung NWY, Hui AY, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of combination therapy for chronic hepatitis B: Comparing pegylated interferon alfa-2b and lamivudine with lamivudine alone. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142: 24050.
  • 5
    Lau GKK, Piratvisuth T, Luo KX, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a, lamivudine, and the combination for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 268295.
  • 6
    Hadziyannis SJ, Tassopoulos NC, Heathcote EJ, et al. Long-term therapy with adefovir dipivoxil for HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B for up to 5 years. Gastroenterology 2006; 131: 174351.
  • 7
    Colonno RJ, Rose RE, Pokornowski K, Baldick CJ, Klesczewski K, Tenney D. Assessment at three years shows high barrier to resistance is maintained in entecavir-treated nucleoside naïve patients while resistance emergence increases over time in lamivudine refractory patients. Hepatology 2006; 1: 22930A.
  • 8
    Feld JJ, Heathcote EJ. Hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B: Natural history and treatment. Semin Liver Dis 2006; 26: 11629.
  • 9
    Chan HLY, Wong VWS, Hui AY, et al. Long term lamivudine treatment is associated with good maintained response in severe acute exacerbation of hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B. Antivir Ther 2006; 11: 46571.
  • 10
    Bartholomeusz A, Locarnini SA. Antiviral drug resistance: Clinical consequences and molecular aspects. Semin Liver Dis 2006; 26: 1627.
  • 11
    Perrillo R, Hann HW, Mutimer D, et al. Adefovir dipivoxil added to ongoing lamivudine in chronic hepatitis B with YMDD mutant hepatitis B virus. Gasteroenterology 2004; 126: 8190.
  • 12
    Lee YS, Suh DJ, Lim YS, et al. Increased risk of adefovir resistance in patients with lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B after 48 weeks of adefovir dipivoxil monotherapy. Hepatology 2006; 43: 138591.
  • 13
    Yeon JE, Yoo W, Hong SP, et al. Resistance to adefovir dipivoxil in lamivudine resistant chronic hepatitis B patients treated with adefovir dipivoxil. Gut 2006; 55: 148895.
  • 14
    Lampertico P, Vigano M, Manenti E, Iavarone M, Lunghi G, Colombo M. Adefovir rapidly suppresses hepatitis B in HBeAg-negative patients developing genotypic resistance to lamivudine. Hepatology 2005; 42: 14149.
  • 15
    Werle-Lapostolle B, Bowden S, Locarnini S, et al. Persistence of cccDNA during the natural history of chronic hepatitis B and decline during adefovir dipivoxil therapy. Gastroenterology 2004; 126: 175058.
  • 16
    Wurthron K, Lutgethetmann M, Dandri M, et al. Peginterferon alpha-2b plus adefovir induce strong cccDNA decline and HBsAg reduction in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2006; 44: 67584.
  • 17
    Deguchi M, Yamashita N, Kagita M, et al. Quantitation of hepatitis B surface antigen by an automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. J Virol Methods 2004; 115: 2172.
  • 18
    Loeb KR, Jerome KR, Goddard J, Huang ML, Cent A, Corey L. High-throughput quantitative analysis of hepatitis B virus DNA in serum using the TaqMan fluorogenic detection system. Hepatology 2000; 32: 6269.
  • 19
    Chan HLY, Chui AKK, Lau WY, et al. Factors associated with viral breakthrough in lamivudine monoprophylaxis of hepatitis B virus recurrence after liver transplantation. J Med Virol 2002; 68: 1827.
  • 20
    Chan HLY, Tsui SKW, Tse CH, et al. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of two subgroups of genotype C hepatitis B virus. J Infect Dis 2005; 191: 202232.
  • 21
    Lai CL, Gane E, Liaw TF, et al. Maximal early HBV suppression is predictive of optimal virologic and clinical efficacy in nucleoside-treated hepatitis B patients: scientific observations from a large multinational trial (The GLOBE Study). Hepatology 2005; 42(supp1): 232233A.
  • 22
    Locarnini S, Qi X, Arterburn S, et al. Incidence and predictors of emergence of adefovir resistant HBV during four years of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). J Hepatol 2005; 42(Suppl. 2): 17.
  • 23
    Marcellin P, Chang TT, Lim SG, et al. Adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 80816.
  • 24
    Zeng MD, Mao YM, Yao GB, et al. A double-blind randomized trial of adefovir dipivoxil in Chinese subjects with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2006; 44: 10816.
  • 25
    Ding C, Wong VWS, Chow K, et al. Quantitative subtyping of hepatitis B virus reveals complex dynamics of YMDD motif mutants development during long-term lamivudine therapy. Antivir Ther 2006; 11: 10419.
  • 26
    Marzano A, Gaia S, Barbon V, et al. Therapy with adefovir alone or combined with lamivudine in patients with lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B: Clinical and virological aspects. Hepatology 2006; 44(Suppl. 1): 231A.
  • 27
    Lampertico P, Marzano A, Levrero M, et al. Adefovir and lamivudine combination therapy is superior to adefovir monotherapy for lamivudine-resistant patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2006; 44(Suppl. 1): 6934A.
  • 28
    Van Bommel F, Zollner B, Sarrazin C, et al. Tenofovir for patients with lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and high HBV DNA level during adefovir therapy. Hepatology 2006; 44: 31825.
  • 29
    Sherman M, Yurdaydin C, Sollano J, et al. Entecavir for treatment of lamivudine-refractory, HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 203949.
  • 30
    Yim HJ, Hussain M, Wong SN, Fung SK, Lok ASF. Evolution of multi-drug resistant hepatitis B virus during sequential therapy. Hepatology 2006; 44: 70312.