SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Scarpignato C, Bjarnason I, Bretagne J-F, et al. Towards a GI safer antiinflammatory therapy. Gastroenterol Int 1999; 12: 180215.
  • 2
    Rainsford KD. Gastrointestinal adaptation, regulation of eicosanoids and mucosal protection from NSAIDs. In: RainsfordKD, ed. Side effects of anti-inflammatory drugs IV. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997: 197205.
  • 3
    Hawkey CJ. NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors: what can we learn from large outcome trials? The Gastroenterologist’s perspective Clin Exp Rheumatol 2001; 19(Suppl. 25): S2330.
  • 4
    Lanza FL, Rack MF, Simon TJ, et al. Specific inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 with MK-0966 is associated with less gastroduodenal damage than either aspirin or ibuprofen. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999; 13: 7617.
  • 5
    Emery P, Zeidler H, Kvien TK, et al. Celecoxib versus diclofenac in long-term management of rheumatoid arthritis: randomised double-blind comparison. Lancet 1999; 354: 210611.
  • 6
    Hawkey C, Laine L, Simon T, et al. Comparison of the effect of rofecoxib (a cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor), ibuprofen, and placebo on the gastroduodenal mucosa of patients with osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 3707.
  • 7
    Silverstein FE, Faich G, Goldstein JL, et al. Gastrointestinal toxicity with celecoxib vs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: the CLASS study: a randomised controlled trial. Celecoxib Long-term Arthritis Study. JAMA 2000; 284: 124755.
  • 8
    Bombardier C, Laine L, Reicin A, et al. Comparison of upper gastrointestinal toxicity of rofecoxib and naproxen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. VIGOR Study Group. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 15208.
  • 9
    Juni P, Rutjes AWS, Dieppe PA. Are selective COX-2 inhibitors superior to traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs? BMJ 2002; 342: 12878.
  • 10
    Laine L, Wogen J, Yu K. Gastrointestinal health care resource utilization with chronic use of COX-2-specific inhibitors versus traditional NSAIDs. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 38995.
  • 11
    Schoenfeld P. An evidence based approach to the gastrointestinal safety profile of COX-2 selecive anti-inflammatories. Gastroenterol Clin N Am 2001; 30: 102744.
  • 12
    Laine L, Connors LG, Reicin A, et al. Serious lower gastrointestinal clinical events with nonselective NSAID or coxib use. Gastroenterology 2003; 124: 28892.
  • 13
    Graham DY. NSAIDs, Helicobacter pylori, and Pandora’s box. N Eng J Med 2002; 347: 21623.
  • 14
    Henry D, Drew A, Beuzeville S. Adverse drug reactions in the gastrointestinal system attributed to ibuprofen. In: RainsfordKD, PowandaMC, eds. Safety and Efficacy of Non-prescription (OTC) Analgesics and SAIDs. Dordreich: Kluwer Acadmic Publishers, 1998: 1945.
  • 15
    Rainsford KD. The ever-emerging anti-inflammatories. Have there been any real advances? J Physiol Paris 2001; 95: 119.
  • 16
    Hawkey CJ, Laine L, Simon T, Quan H, Shingo S, Evans J. Rofecoxib Rheumatoid Arthritis Endoscopy Study Group. Incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis after 12 weeks of rofecoxib, naproxen, or placebo: a multicentre, randomised, double blind study. Gut 2003; 52: 8206.
  • 17
    Hunt RH, Harper S, Watson DJ, et al. The gastrointestinal safety of the COX-2 selective inhibitor etoricoxib assessed by both endoscopy and analysis of upper gastrointestinal events. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98: 172533.
    Direct Link:
  • 18
    Hunt RH, Harper S, Callegary P, et al. Complementary studies of the gastrointestinal safety of the cyclo-oxygenase-2-selective inhibitor etoricoxib. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 17: 20110.
  • 19
    Whittle BJR. Unwanted effects of aspirin and related agents on the gastrointestinal tract. In: VaneJR, BottingRM, eds. Aspirin and other salicylates. London: Chapman & Hall Medical, 1992: 465509.
  • 20
    Bjarnason I, Hayllar J, Macpherson AJ, Russell AS. Side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the small and large intestine. Gastroenterology 1993; 104: 183247.
  • 21
    Wallace JL. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and gastroenteropathy: the second hundred years. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 100016.
  • 22
    Brookes PM, Day RO. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs-differences and similarities. N Eng J Med 1991; 324: 171625.
  • 23
    Brune K, Schwietzer A, Eckert H. Parietal cells of the stomach trap salicylates during absorption. Biochem Pharmacol 1977; 26: 173540.
  • 24
    Brune K, Dietzel K, Nurnberg B, Schneider H-Th. Recent insight into the mechanism of gastrointestinal tract ulceration. Scand J Rheumatol 1987; 65: 13540.
  • 25
    Gullikson GW, Cline WS, Lorenzson V, Benz L, Olsen WA, Bass P. Effects of anionic surfactants on hamster small intestinal membrane structure and function: relationship to surface activity. Gastroenterology 1977; 73: 50111.
  • 26
    Gullikson GW, Sender M, Bass P. Laxative-like effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on intestinal fluid movement and membrane integrity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1981; 220: 23652.
  • 27
    Lichtenberger LM, Romero JJ, Wang ZM. ASA forms an ionic complex with phosphatidylcholine: possible molecular explanation for its ulcerogenic action. Gastroenterology 1994; 106: A134.
  • 28
    Lichtenberger LM, Wang Z-M, Romero JJ, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) associate with zwitterionic phospholipids: insight into the mechanism and reversal of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal injury. Nat Med 1995; 1: 1548.
  • 29
    Lichtenberger LM, Graziani LA, Dial EJ, Butler BD, Hills BA. Role of surfact-active phospholipids in gastric cytoprotection. Science 1983; 219: 13279.
  • 30
    Anand BS, Romero JJ, Sanduja SK, Lichtenberger LM. Phospholipid association reduces the gastric mucosal toxicity of aspirin in human subjects. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 181822.
    Direct Link:
  • 31
    Adams SS, Cobb R. A possible basis for the anti-inflammatory activity of salicylates and other non-hormonal anti-rheumatic drugs. Nature 1958; 181: 7734.
  • 32
    Spenny JG, Bhown M. Effect of prostaglandin acid on gastric mucosa II. Mucosal ATP and phosphocreatinine content and salicylic effects on mitochondrial metabolism. Gastroenterology 1977; 73: 9959.
  • 33
    Jacob M. Mechanism of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced damage in the small bowel. PhD Thesis, University of London, 1999.
  • 34
    Glarborg-Jorgensen T, Weis-Fogh US, Neilsen HH, Olsen HP. Salicylate- and aspirin-induced uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria isolated from the mucosal membrane of the stomach. Scand J Lab Invest 1976; 36: 64953.
  • 35
    Somasundaram S, Sigthorsson G, Price AB, et al. The relative importance of inhibition of cyclooxygenase and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in the gastrointestinal toxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Alim Pharm Therap 2000; 14: 63950.
  • 36
    Mahmud T, Somasundaram S, Sigthorsson G, et al. Enantiomers of flurbiprofen can distingush key pathophysiological steps of NSAID-enteropathy in the rat by steroselective inhibition of cyclooxygenase. GUT 1998; 43: 77582.
  • 37
    Somasundaram S, Hayllar J, Rafi S, Wrigglesworth J, Macpherson A, Bjarnason I. The biochemical basis of NSAID-induced damage to the gastrointestinal tract: a review and a hypothesis. Scand J Gastroenterol 1995; 30: 28999.
  • 38
    Scarpignato C. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: how do they damage the gastroduodenal mucosa? Dig Dis Sci 1995; 13(Suppl. 1): 939.
  • 39
    Bugat R, Thompson MR, Aures D, Grossman MI. Gastric mucosal lesions produced by intravenous infusion of aspirin in cats. Gastroenterology 1976; 71: 7549.
  • 40
    Ivey KJ, Poane DB, Krause WJ. Acute effect of systemic aspirin on gastric mucosa in man. Dig Dis Sci 1980; 25: 979.
  • 41
    Szewczyk A, Wojtczak L. Mitochondria as a pharmacologic target. Pharmacol Rev 2002; 54: 10127.
  • 42
    Gutknecht J. Salicylates and proton transport through lipid bi-layer membranes: a mode for sailcylate-induced uncoupling and swelling in mitochondria. J Membr Biol 1990; 115: 25360.
  • 43
    Newmeyer DD, Ferguson-Miller S. Mitochondria: releasing power for life and unleasing the machineries of death. Cell 2003; 112: 873.
  • 44
    Wallace JL, McKnight W, Reuter BK, Vergnolle N. NSAID-induced gastric damage in rats: requirement for inhibition of both cyclooxygenase 1 and 2. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 70614.
  • 45
    Sigthorsson G, Simpson RJ, Walley M, et al. COX-1 and 2, intestinal integrity and pathogenesis of NSAID-enteropathy in mice. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 191323.
  • 46
    Tanaka A, Araki H, Komoike Y, Hase S, Takeuchi K. Inhibition of both COX-1 and COX-2 is required for development of gastric damage in response to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. J Physiol Paris 2001; 95: 217.
  • 47
    Gretzer B, Maricic N, Respondek M, Schuligoi R, Peskar BM. Effects of specific inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase-1 and cyclo-oxygenase-2 in the rat stomach with normal mucosa and after acid challenge. Br J Pharmacol 2001; 132: 156573.
  • 48
    Langenbach R, Morham SG, Tiano HF, et al. Prostaglandin synthase 1 gene disruption in mice reduced arachidonic acid-induced inflammation and indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration. Cell 1995; 83: 48392.
  • 49
    Morham SG, Langenbach R, Loftin CD, et al. Prostaglandin synthase 2 gene disruption causes severe renal pathology in the mouse. Cell 1995; 83: 47382.
  • 50
    Ligumski M, Golanska EM, Hansen DG, Kauffman GL. Aspirin can inhibit gastric mucosal cyclo-oxygenase without causing lesions in the rat. Gastroenterology 1983; 84: 75661.
  • 51
    Ligumski M, Sestieri M, Karmeli F, Zimmerman J, Okon E, Rachmilewitz D. Rectal administration of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Gastroenterology 1990; 98: 12459.
  • 52
    Ligumsky M, Grossman MI, Kauffman GL. Endogenous gastric mucosal prostaglandins: their role in mucosal integrity. Am J Physiol 1982; 242: G33741.
  • 53
    Elson CO, Sartor BR, Tennyson GS, Riddell RH. Experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 1995; 109: 134467.
  • 54
    Lanza FL, Graham DY, Davis RE, Rack MF. Endoscopic evaluation of cimethidine and sucralfate for prevention of naproxen-induced gastroduodenal injury: effects of scoring method. Dig Dis Sci 1990; 35: 14949.
  • 55
    Aabakken L, Larsen S, Osnes M. Visual analogue scales for endoscopic evaluation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced mucosal damage in the stomach and the duodenum. Scand J Gastroenterology 1990; 25: 4438.
  • 56
    Warner TD, Giuliano F, Vojnovic I, Bukasa A, Mitchell JA, Vane JR. Nonsteroid drug selectivities for cyclo-oxygenase-1 rather than cyclo-oxygenase-2 are associated with human gastrointestinal toxicity: a full in vitro analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999; 96: 75638.
  • 57
    Blain H, Boileau C, Laqicque F, et al. Limitation of the in vitro whole blood assay for predicting the COX selectivity of NSAIDs in clinical use. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 53: 255.
  • 58
    Brooks P, Emery P, Evans JF, et al. Interpreting the clinical significance of the differential inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2. Rheumatology 1999; 38: 77988.
  • 59
    Rainsford KD. Structure-activity relationship on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. I. Gastric ulcergenic activity. Agents Action 1978; 8: 587605.
  • 60
    McCormack K, Brune K. Classical absorption theory and the development of gastric mucosal damage associated with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Arch Toxicol 1987; 60: 2619.
  • 61
    Franz RD. Comparison of pKa and Log P values of some carboxylic and phosphoric acids: synthesis and measurement. PharnSci 2001; 3: E10.
  • 62
    Barbato F, Caliendo G, La Rotonda MI, Silipo C, Toraldo G, Vittoria AA. Distribution coefficients by curve fitting: application to ionogenic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Quantitative. Structure-Activity Relat. 1986; 5: 8895.
  • 63
    Laine L, Cominelli F, Sloane R, Casini-Raggi V, Marin-Souurensen M, Weinstein WM. Interactions of NSAIDs and Helicobacter pylori on gastrointestinal injury and prostaglandin production: a controlled double-blind trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1995; 9: 12735.
  • 64
    Shah AA, Thjodleifsson B, Murray FE, et al. A randomised, double blind, double dummy, crossover study of the effects of nimesulide and naproxen on the gastrointestinal tract and an in vivo assessment of their selectivity for cyclooxygenase 1 and 2. Gut 2001; 48: 33948.
  • 65
    Huang JQ, Sridhar S, Hunt RH. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in peptic ulcer disease in man: a meta analyses. Lancet 2002; 359: 1422.
  • 66
    Lanza FL, Royer GL, Nelson RS. Endoscopic evaluation of the effects of aspirin, buffered aspirin, and enteric-coated aspirin on gastric and duodenal mucosa. N Eng J Med 1980; 303: 1368.
  • 67
    Lanza FL, Nelson RS, Rack MF. A controlled endoscopic study comparing the toxic effects of sulindac, naproxen, aspirin and placebo on the gastric mucosa of healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 1984; 24: 8995.
  • 68
    Lanza FL, Royer GL, Nelson RS, et al. Effects of flurbiprofen and aspirin on the gastric and duodenal mucosa. Am J Med 1986; 80(Suppl. 3A): 315.
  • 69
    Friedman H, Seckman CE, Schwartz JH, Lanza FL, Royer GL, Stubbs CM. The effects of flurbiprofen, aspirin, cimethidine, and antacids on the gastric and duodenal mucosa of norma volunteers. An endoscopic study and photographic study. J Clin Pharmacol 1989; 29: 55962.
  • 70
    Lanza FL, Peace K, Gustitus L, Rack MF, Dickson B. A blinded endoscopic comparative study of misoprostol versus sucralfate and placebo in the prevention of aspirin-induced gastric and duodenal ulceration. Am J Gastroenterol 1988; 83: 1436.
  • 71
    Lanza FL, Evans DG, Graham DY. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on severity of gastroduodenal mucosal injury after the acute administration of naproxen or aspirin to normal volunteers. Am J Gastroenterol 1991; 86: 7357.
  • 72
    Lanza F, Rack MF, Simon TJ, Lombardi A, Reyes R, Suryawanshi S. Effects of alendronate on gastric and duodenal mucosa. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93: 7537.
    Direct Link:
  • 73
    Jiranek GC, Kimmey MB, Saunders DR, Willson RA, Shanahan W, Silverstein FE. Misoprostol reduces gastroduodenal injury from one week of aspirin: an endoscopic study. Gastroenterology 1989; 96: 65661.
  • 74
    Stern AI, Ward F, Sievert W. Lack of gastric mucosal protection by sucralfate during long-term aspirin ingestion in humans. Am J Med 1989; 86(Suppl. 6A): 669.
  • 75
    Stern AI, Ward F, Hartley G. Protective effect of sucralfate against aspirin-induced damage to the human gastric mucosa. Am J Med 1987; 83(Suppl. 3A): 835.
  • 76
    Berkowitz JM, Adler SN, Sharp JT, Warner CW. Reduction of aspirin-induced gastroduodenal mucosal damage with ranitidine. J Clin Gastroenterol 1986; 8: 37780.
  • 77
    Lanza FL, Nelson RS, Reenberg BP. Effects of fenbufen, Indomethacin, naproxen, and placebo on gastric mucosa of normal volunteers. Am J Gastroenterol 1983; 75(4B): 759.
  • 78
    Lanza FL, Rack MF, Lynn M, Wolf BS, Sanda M. An endoscopic comparison of the effects of etodolac, indomethacin, ibuprofen, naproxen and placebo on the gastrointestinal mucosa. J Rheumatol 1987; 14: 33841.
  • 79
    Bjarnason I, Macpherson A, Rothman H, Schupp J, Hayllar J. A randomised, double blind, cross-over comparative endoscopy study on the gastroduodenal tolerability of a highly specific cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor, flosulide, and naproxen. Scand J Gastroenterol 1997; 32: 12630.
  • 80
    Oddson E, Gudjonsson H, Thjodleifsson B. Comparison between ranitidine and omeprazole for protection against gastroduodenal damage caused by naproxen. Scand J Gastroenterol 1992; 27: 10458.
  • 81
    Oddson E, Gudjonsson H, Thjodleifsson B. Endoscopic findings in the stomach and duodenum after treatment with enteric-coated and plain naproxen tablets in healthy subjects. Scand J Gastroenterol 1990; 25: 2314.
  • 82
    Gudjonsson H, Oddson E, Thjodleifsson B. Does sucralfate prevent short-term NSAID induced damage to the gastroduodenal mucosa? Digestion 1994; 55: 6958.
  • 83
    Lanza FL, Royer GL. NSAID-induced gastric ulceration is dose related by weight: an endoscopic study with flurbiprofen. Am J Gastroenterol 1993; 88: 6836.
  • 84
    Lanza FL, Royer GL, Nelson RS, Frack MF, Seckman CE, Schwartz JH. Effects of acetaminophen on human gastric mucosal injury caused by ibuprofen. Gut 1986; 27: 4403.
  • 85
    Lanza FL, Fakouhi D, Rubin A, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled comparison of the efficacy and safety of 50, 100 and 200 micrograme of misoprostol QID in the prevention of ibuprofen-induced gastric and duodenal mucosal lesions and symptoms. Am J Gastroenterol 1989; 84: 6336.
  • 86
    Lanza FL, Codispoti JR, Nelson EB. An endoscopic comparison of gastroduodenal injury with over-the-counter doses of ketoprofen and acetaminophen. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93: 10513.
    Direct Link:
  • 87
    Bianchi Porro G, Ardizzone S, Petrillo M, Caruso I, Montrone F. Endoscopic assessment of the effects of dipyrone (metamizol) in comparison to paracetamol and placebo on the gastric and duodenal mucosa of healthy adult volunteers. Digestion 1996; 57: 18690.
  • 88
    Botting R. Mechanism of action of acetaminophen: is there a cyclooxygenase 3? Clin Infect Dis 2000; 31(Suppl. 5): S20210.
  • 89
    Willoughby DA, Moore AR, Calville-Nash PR. COX-1, COX-2, COX-3 and the future treatment of chronic inflammatory disease. Lancet 2000; 355: 6468.
  • 90
    Hawthorne AB, Mahida YR, Cole AT, Hawkey CJ. Aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage: prevention by enteric-coating and relation to prostaglandin synthesis. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1991; 32: 7783.
  • 91
    Simon LS, Lanza FL, Lipsky PE, et al. Preliminary study of the safety and efficacy of SC-58635, a novel cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor: efficacy and safety in two placebo-controlled trials in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, and studies of gastrointestinal and platelet effects. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 1591602.
  • 92
    Duggan AE, Stack W, Hull M, et al. Protection against aspirin-induced human gastric mucosal injury by bosentan, a new endothelin-1 receptor antagonist. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999; 13: 6315.
  • 93
    Konturek SJ, Kwiecien N, Obtulowicz W, Oleski J. Gastroprotection by sucralfate against acetylsalicylic acid in humans. Role of endogenous prostaglandins. Scand J Gastroenterol 1987; 22(Suppl. 140).
  • 94
    Murray FE, Hyudson N, Atherton JC, Cole AT, Scheck F, Hawkey CJ. Comparison of effects of calcium carbasalate and aspirin on gastroduodenal mucosal damage in human volunteers. Gut 1996; 38: 114.
  • 95
    Hudson N, Murray FE, Cole AT, Filipowicz B, Hawkey CJ. Effect of sucralfate on aspirin induced mucosal injury and impaired haemostasis in humans. Gut 1997; 41: 1923.
  • 96
    Donnelly MT, Goodard AF, Filipowicz B, Morant SV, Shield MJ, Hawkey CJ. Low-dose misoprostol for the prevention of low-dose aspirin-induced gastroduodenal damage. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000; 14: 52934.
  • 97
    Cole AT, Hudson N, Liew LC, Murray FE, Hawkey CJ, Heptinstall S. Protection of human gastric mucosa against aspirin-enteric coating or dose reduction? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999; 13: 18793.
  • 98
    Taha AS, McLaughlin S, Holland PJ, Kelly RW, Sturrock RD, Russell RI. Effect on gastric and duodenal mucosal prostaglandins of repeated intake of naproxen and etodolac in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1990; 49: 3548.
  • 99
    Wight NJ, Gottesdiener K, Garlick NM, et al. Rofecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, does not inhibit human gastric mucosal prostaglandin production. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 86773.
  • 100
    Rainsford KD, James C, Johnson DM, et al. Effect of chronic NSAIDs on gastric mucosal injury related to mucosal prostanoids, and plasma drug concentrations in human volunteers. Agents Actions 1993; 39: C213.
  • 101
    Donnelly MT, Richardson P, Hawkey CJ, Courtauld E, Stack WA. Dose-dependent effects of ketoprofen on the human gastric mucosa in comparison with ibuprofen. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000; 14: 5439.
  • 102
    Cryer B, Feldman M. Effects of very low dose daily, long-term aspirin therapy on gastric, duodenal, and rectal prostaglandin levels and on mucosal injury in healthy humans. Gastroenterology 1999; 117: 1725.
  • 103
    Vane JR. Towards a better aspirin. Nature 1994; 367: 2156.
  • 104
    Vane JR. NSAIDs, Cox-2 inhibitors, and the gut. Lancet 1995; 346: 11056.
  • 105
    Redfern JS, Feldman M. Role of prostaglandins in preventing gastrointestinal ulceration: induction of ulcers by antibodies to prostaglandins. Gastroenterology 1989; 96: 596605.
  • 106
    Graham DY, Agrawal NM, Roth SH. Prevention of NSAID-induced gastric ulcer with misoprostol: multicenter double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 1988; ii: 127780.
  • 107
    Silverstein FE, Graham GY, Senior JR, et al. Misoprostol reduces serious gastrointestinal complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Ann Int Med 1995; 123: 2419.
  • 108
    Dajani EZ, Agrawal NM. Prevention of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastroduodenal ulcers: role of mucosal protective and gastric antisecretory drugs. Dig Dis 1995; 13(Suppl. 1): 4861.
  • 109
    Vane JR, Botting RM. Formation and actions of prostaglandins and inhibition of their synthesis. In: VaneJR, BottingRM, eds. Therapeutic roles of selective COX-2 inhibition. London: William Harvey Press, 2001: 147.
  • 110
    Simon LS, Weaver AL, Graham DY, et al. Anti-inflammatory and upper gastrointestinal effects of celecoxib in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised controlled trial. JAMA 1999; 282: 19218.
  • 111
    Borrelli F, Welsh NJ, Sigthorsson G, et al. Gastric acid secretion in cyclooxygenase-1 deficient mice. Alim Pharmacol Therap 2000; 14: 136570.
  • 112
    Smith CJ, Zhang Y, Koboldt CM, et al. Pharmacological analysis of cyslooxygenase-1 in inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1998; 95: 133138.
  • 113
    Lanza FL, Umebenhauer ER, Nelson RS, Rack MF, Daurio MS, White LA. A double-blind randomised placebo controlled gastroscopic study to compare the effects of indomethacin capsules and indomethacin suppositories on the gastric mucosa of human volunteers. J Rheumatol 1982; 11: 4847.
  • 114
    Cooke AR, Goulston K. Failure of intravenous aspirin to increase gastrointestinal blood loss. Br Med J 1969; 1: 3302.
  • 115
    Fiorucci S, Santucci L, Wallace JL, et al. Interaction of a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor with aspirin and NO-releasing aspirin in the human gastric mucosa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003; 100: 1093741.
  • 116
    Wallace JL, Reuter B, Cicala C, McKnight W, Grisham MB, Cirino GA. A diclofenac derivative without ulcerogenic properties. Eur J Pharmacol 1994; 257: 24955.
  • 117
    Donnelly MT, Stack WA, Courtauld EM, Garlick N, DelSoldato P, Hawkey CJ. Nitric oxide donating flurbiprofen (HCT 1026) causes less endoscopic damage in healthy volunteers than flurbiprofen. Gastroenterology 1998; 114: A107.
  • 118
    Rainsford KD, Whitehouse MW. Anti-inflammatory antipyretic salicylic acid esters, with low gastric ulcerogenic activity. Agents Actions 1980; 10: 4516.
  • 119
    Hawkey CJ, Svoboda P, Fiedorowicz-Fabrycy IF, et al. Gastroduodenal safety and tolerability of lumiracoxib compared with Ibuprofen and celecoxib in patients with osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 2004; 31: 180410.
  • 120
    Fiorucci S, Santucci L, Gresele P, Faccino RM, Del Soldato P, Morelli A. Gastrointestinal safety of NO-aspirin (NCX-4016) in healthy human volunteers: a proof of concept endoscopic study. Gastroenterology 2003; 124: 6007.
  • 121
    Dammann HG, Burkhardt F, Wolf N. Enteric coating of aspirin significantly decreases gastroduodenal mucosal lesion. Aliment Pharmacol Therap 1999; 13: 110914.
  • 122
    Thomson AB, Appleman S, Keelan M, Wallace JL. Role of gastric mucosal and gastric juice cytokine concentrations in development of bisphosphonate damage to gastric mucosa. Dig Dis Sci 2003; 48: 30814.
  • 123
    Graham DY. What the gastroenterologist should know about the gastrointestinal safety profiles of bisphosphonates. Dig Dis Sci 2002; 47: 166578.
  • 124
    Mahmud T, Rafi SS, Scott DL, Wrigglesworth JM, Bjarnason I. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Arth Rheum 1996; 39: 19982003.
  • 125
    Insel PA. Analgesic-antipyretics and antiinflammatory agents: drugs employed in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and gout. In: GillmanAG, RallTW, NiesAS, TaylorP, eds. Goodman and Gilman’s The pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 8th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993: 63881.
  • 126
    Rainsford KD, Schweitzer A, Brune K. Autoradiographic and biochemical observations on the distribution of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 1981; 250: 18094.
  • 127
    Jacob M, Simpson R, Bjarnason I. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclooxygenase selectivity and gastrointestinal toxicity. Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1998; 30: 128.
  • 128
    Graham DY, Smith JL, Holmes GI, Davies RO. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory effect of sulindac sulfoxide and sulfide on the gastric mucosa. Clin Pharmacol Therapeut 1985; 38: 6570.
  • 129
    Carson JL, Strom BL, Morse NL, et al. Relative gastrointestinal toxicity of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Arch Int Med 1987; 147: 10549.
  • 130
    Griffin MR, Piper JM, Dougherty JR, Snowden M, Ray WA. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and increased risk for peptic ulcer disease in elderly persons. Ann Int Med 1991; 114: 25763.
  • 131
    Fenn GC. Controversies in NSAID-induced gastroduodenal damage-do they matter? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1994; 8: 1526.
  • 132
    Langman MJS, Weil J, Wainwright P, et al. Risk of bleeding peptic ulcers associated with individual non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Lancet 1994; 343: 10758.
  • 133
    Rodrigues LAG, Jick H. Risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation associated with individual non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Lancet 1994; 343: 76972.
  • 134
    Armstrong CP, Blower AL. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and life threatening complications of peptic ulcer disease. Gut 1987; 28: 52732.
  • 135
    Hawkey CJ. Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and peptic ulcers. Br Med J 1990; 300: 27884.
  • 136
    Gabriel SE, Jaakkimainen L, Bombardier C. Risks for serious GI complications related to use of NSAIDs. Ann Int Med 1991; 115: 78796.
  • 137
    Naschitz LE, Yeshurun D, Odeh M, et al. Overt gastrointestinal bleeding in the course of chronic low dose aspirin administration for secondary prevention of arterial occlusive disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1990; 85: 40811.
  • 138
    Kurata JH, Abbey DE. The effect of chronic aspirin use on duodenal and gastric ulcer hospitalisations. J Clin Gastroenterol 1990; 12: 2606.
  • 139
    Henry D, Lim LL-Y, Rodrigues LAG, et al. Variability in risk of gastrointestinal complications with individual non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: results of a collaborative meta-analysis. Br Med J 1996; 312: 15636.
  • 140
    Smalley WE, Ray WA, Daugherty JR, Griffin MR. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the incidence of hospitalizations for peptic ulcer disease in elderly persons. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 141: 53945.
  • 141
    Rainsford KD, Roberts SC, Brown S. Ibuprofen and paracetamol: relative safety in non-prescription dosages. J Pharm Pharmacol 1997; 49: 34576.
  • 142
    Thomas J, Straus WL, Bloom BS. Over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of gastrointestinal symptoms. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97: 22159.
    Direct Link:
  • 143
    Fries JF, Miller SR, Spitz PW, Williams CA, Hubert HB, Bloch DA. Toward an epidemiology of gastropathy associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. Gastroenterology 1989; 96 (Suppl.): 64755.
  • 144
    Wolfe MM, Lichtenstein DR, Singh G. Gastro intestinal safety of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. N Eng J Med 1999; 340: 188899.
  • 145
    Hawkey CJ. COX-2 inhibitors. Lancet 1999; 353: 30114.
  • 146
    Walt R. Drug therapy: misoprostol for the treatment of peptic ulcer and antiinflammatory drug-induced gastroduodenal ulceration. New Engl J Med 1992; 327: 157580.
  • 147
    Hawkey CJ. Outcomes studies of drug induced ulcer complications: do we need them and how should they be done? BMJ 2000; 321: 2913.
  • 148
    Krag E. Gastric acid secretion related to prognosis in peptic ulcer disease. Acta Med Scand 1966; 180: 4617.
  • 149
    Fry J. Peptic ulcer: a profile. Br Med J 1964; 2: 80912.
  • 150
    Bonnevie O. Survival in peptic ulcer. Gastroenterology 1978; 75: 105560.