• 1
    Dwarakanath AD, Yu LG, Brookes C, Pryce D, Rhodes JM. ‘Sticky’ neutrophils, pathergic arthritis, and response to heparin in pyoderma gangrenosum complicating ulcerative colitis. Gut 1995; 37: 5858.
  • 2
    Gaffney PR, Doyle CT, Gaffney A, Hogan J, Hayes DP, Annis P. Paradoxical response to heparin in 10 patients with ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 1995; 90: 2203.
  • 3
    Evans RC, Wong VS, Morris AI, Rhodes JM. Treatment of corticosteroid-resistant ulcerative colitis with heparin – a report of 16 cases. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1997; 11: 103740.
  • 4
    Folwaczny C, Wiebecke B, Loeschke K. Unfractionated heparin in the therapy of patients with highly active inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 15515.
    Direct Link:
  • 5
    Folwaczny C, Fricke H, Endres S, Hartmann G, Jochum M, Loeschke K. Anti-inflammatory properties of unfractioned heparin in patients with highly active ulcerative colitis: a pilot study. Am J Gastroenterol 1997; 92: 9112.
  • 6
    Korzenik JR. IBD: a vascular disorder? The case for heparin therapy. Inflamm Bowel Disease 1997; 3: 8794.
  • 7
    Gaffney PR, O’Leary JJ, Doyle CT, et al. Response to heparin in patients with ulcerative colitis. Lancet 1991; 26: 2389.
  • 8
    Torkvist L, Thorlacius H, Sjoqvist U, et al. Low molecular weight heparin as adjuvant therapy in active ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999; 13: 13238.
  • 9
    Vrij AA, Jansen JM, Schoon EJ, De Bruine A, Hemker HC, Stockbrugger RW. Low molecular weight heparin treatment in steroid refractory ulcerative colitis: clinical outcome and influence on mucosal capillary thrombi. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 2001; 234: 417.
  • 10
    Dotan I, Hallak A, Arber N, et al. Low-dose low-molecular weight heparin (enoxaparin) is effective as adjuvant treatment in active ulcerative colitis: an open trial. Dig Dis Sci 2001; 46: 223944.
  • 11
    Panes J, Esteve M, Cabre E, et al. Comparison of heparin and steroids in the treatment of moderate and severe ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 9038.
  • 12
    Ang YS, Mahmud N, White B, et al. Randomized comparison of unfractionated heparin with corticosteroids in severe active inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000; 14: 101522.
  • 13
    Bloom S, Kiilerich S, Lassen MR, et al. Low molecular weight heparin (tinzaparin) vs. placebo in the treatment of mild to moderately active ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 19: 8718.
  • 14
    Korzenik J, Miner P, Stanton D, et al. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of deligoparin (ultra low molecular weight heparin) for active ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 2003; 124: A67.
  • 15
    Zezos P, Papaioannou G, Nikolaidis N, et al. Low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin) as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of active ulcerative colitis: a randomized, controlled, comparative study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006; 23: 144353.
  • 16
    De Bievre MA, Vrij AA, Schoon EJ, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of low molecular weight heparin in active ulcerative colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007; 13: 753738.
  • 17
    Korzenik JR, Robert ME, Bitton A, et al. A multi-center, randomized, controlled trial of heparin for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: A752.
  • 18
    Torkvist L, Stahlberg D, Bohman L, et al. LWMH for the treatment of mild to moderately active steroid refractory/dependent UC-an independent, multi-center, randomized, controlled study. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: A277.
  • 19
    Fazio V. Current status of surgery for inflammatory bowel disease. Digestion 1998; 59: 47080.
  • 20
    Hanauer SB. Inflammatory bowel disease. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 8418.
  • 21
    Rutgeerts P. Medical therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. Digestion 1998; 59: 45369.
  • 22
    Day R, Ilyas M, Daszak P, Talbot I, Forbes A. Expression of syndecan-1 in inflammatory bowel disease and a possible mechanism of heparin therapy. Dig Dis Sci 1999; 44: 250815.
  • 23
    Yayon A, Gray TE, Zimmer Y, Eisenstein M, Givol D. Ligand binding by fibroblast growth factor receptors investigated using chimeric receptor molecules. J Recept Signal Transduct Res 1995; 15: 18597.
  • 24
    Spivak-Kroizman T, Lemmon MA, Dikic I, et al. Heparin-induced oligomerization of FGF molecules is responsible for FGF receptor dimerization, activation, and cell proliferation. Cell 1994; 79: 101524.
  • 25
    Arai T, Parker A, Busby W Jr, Clemmons DR. Heparin, heparin sulfate, and dermatan sulfate regulate formation of the insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complexes. J Biol Chem 1994; 296: 2038893.
  • 26
    Bannon PG, Kim MJ, Dean RT, Dawes J. Augmentation of vascular endothelial barrier function by heparin and low molecular weight heparin. Thromb Haemost 1995; 73: 70612.
  • 27
    Miller SJ, Hoggat AM, Faulk WP. Heparin regulates ICAM-1 expression in human endothelial cells: an example of non-cytokine-medicated endothelial activation. Thromb Haemost 1998; 80: 4817.
  • 28
    Cui HF, Jiang XL. Treatment of corticosteroid-resistant ulcerative colitis with oral low molecular weight heparin. World J Gastroenterol 1999; 5: 44850.
  • 29
    Fareed J, Leong WL, Hoppensteadt DA, et al. Generic low-molecular-weight heparins: some practical considerations. Semin Thromb Hemost 2004; 30: 70313.