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Summary

Background  Bile salts are produced and secreted by the liver and are required for intestinal absorption of fatty food components and excretion of endobiotics and xenobiotics. They are reabsorbed in the terminal ileum and transported back to the liver via the portal tract. Dedicated bile salt transporters in hepatocytes and enterocytes are responsible for the unidirectional transport of bile salts in the enterohepatic cycle.

Aim  To give an overview of the function and regulations of proteins involved in bile salt synthesis and transport.

Methods  Data presented are obtained from PubMed-accessible literature combined with our own recent research.

Result  Hepatocytes and enterocytes contain unique bile salt importers (sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, respectively) and exporters (bile salt export pump and organic solute transporter alpha-beta, respectively). Enzymes involved in bile salt biosynthesis reside in different subcellular locations, including the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, cytosol and peroxisomes. Defective expression or function of the transporters or enzymes may lead to cholastasis. The bile salt-activated transcription factor Farnesoid X receptor controls expression of genes involved in bile salt biosynthesis and transport.

Conclusions  Detailed knowledge is available about the enzymes and transporters involved in bile salt homeostasis and how their defective function is associated with cholestasis. In contrast, the process of intracellular bile salt transport is largely unexplored.