SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Woods SC. Gastrointestinal satiety signals I. An overview of gastrointestinal signals that influence food intake. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2004; 286: G713.
  • 2
    Phillips RJ, Powley TL. Gastric volume rather than nutrient content inhibits food intake. Am J Physiol 1996; 271: R7669.
  • 3
    Powley TL, Phillips RJ. Gastric satiation is volumetric, intestinal satiation is nutritive. Physiol Behav 2004; 82: 6974.
  • 4
    French SJ, Conlon CA, Mutuma ST, et al. The effects of intestinal infusion of long-chain fatty acids on food intake in humans. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 9438.
  • 5
    Aja S. Serotonin-3 receptors in gastric mechanisms of cholecystokinin-induced satiety. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2006; 291: R1124.
  • 6
    Lieverse RJ, Jansen JB, Masclee AA, Rovati LC, Lamers CB. Effect of a low dose of intraduodenal fat on satiety in humans: studies using the type A cholecystokinin receptor antagonist loxiglumide. Gut 1994; 35: 5015.
  • 7
    Savastano DM, Hayes MR, Covasa M. Serotonin-type 3 receptors mediate intestinal lipid-induced satiation and Fos-like immunoreactivity in the dorsal hindbrain. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2007; 292: R106370.
  • 8
    Kaplan JM, Spector AC, Grill HJ. Dynamics of gastric emptying during and after stomach fill. Am J Physiol 1992; 263: R8139.
  • 9
    Feinle C, Christen M, Grundy D, et al. Effects of duodenal fat, protein or mixed-nutrient infusions on epigastric sensations during sustained gastric distension in healthy humans. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2002; 14: 20513.
  • 10
    Rigaud D, Trostler N, Rozen R, Vallot T, Apfelbaum M. Gastric distension, hunger and energy intake after balloon implantation in severe obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1995; 19: 48995.
  • 11
    Nieben OG, Harboe H. Intragastric balloon as an artificial bezoar for treatment of obesity. Lancet 1982; 1: 1989.
  • 12
    Geliebter A. Gastric distension and gastric capacity in relation to food intake in humans. Physiol Behav 1988; 44: 6658.
  • 13
    Goetze O, Steingoetter A, Menne D, et al. The effect of macronutrients on gastric volume responses and gastric emptying in humans: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2007; 292: G117.
  • 14
    Cummings DE, Overduin J. Gastrointestinal regulation of food intake. J Clin Invest 2007; 117: 1323.
  • 15
    Clarkston WK, Pantano MM, Morley JE, Horowitz M, Littlefield JM, Burton FR. Evidence for the anorexia of aging: gastrointestinal transit and hunger in healthy elderly vs. young adults. Am J Physiol 1997; 272: R2438.
  • 16
    Schwartz GJ, Salorio CF, Skoglund C, Moran TH. Gut vagal afferent lesions increase meal size but do not block gastric preload-induced feeding suppression. Am J Physiol 1999; 276: R16239.
  • 17
    Schwartz GJ. The role of gastrointestinal vagal afferents in the control of food intake: current prospects. Nutrition 2000; 16: 86673.
  • 18
    Ritter RC. Gastrointestinal mechanisms of satiation for food. Physiol Behav 2004; 81: 24973.
  • 19
    Vu MK, Maljaars J.W., Biemond I, Mearadji B, Masclee AA. Role of peptide YY in ileal brake induced satiety and proximal gastric function. Gastroenterology 2006; 130 (Suppl. 2): A68.
  • 20
    French SJ. The effects of specific nutrients on the regulation of feeding behaviour in human subjects. Proc Nutr Soc 1999; 58: 5339.
  • 21
    Oesch S, Ruegg C, Fischer B, Degen L, Beglinger C. Effect of gastric distension prior to eating on food intake and feelings of satiety in humans. Physiol Behav 2006; 87: 90310.
  • 22
    Feinle C, Grundy D, Read NW. Effects of duodenal nutrients on sensory and motor responses of the human stomach to distension. Am J Physiol 1997; 273: G7216.
  • 23
    Cox JE, Kelm GR, Meller ST, Randich A. Suppression of food intake by GI fatty acid infusions: roles of celiac vagal afferents and cholecystokinin. Physiol Behav 2004; 82: 2733.
  • 24
    Cox JE, Kelm GR, Meller ST, Spraggins DS, Randich A. Truncal and hepatic vagotomy reduce suppression of feeding by jejunal lipid infusions. Physiol Behav 2004; 81: 2936.
  • 25
    Cox JE, Tyler WJ, Randich A, Kelm GR, Meller ST. Celiac vagotomy reduces suppression of feeding by jejunal fatty acid infusions. Neuroreport 2001; 12: 10936.
  • 26
    Gibbs J, Young RC, Smith GP. Cholecystokinin elicits satiety in rats with open gastric fistulas. Nature 1973; 245: 3235.
  • 27
    Gibbs J, Young RC, Smith GP. Cholecystokinin decreases food intake in rats. J Comp Physiol Psychol 1973; 84: 48895.
  • 28
    Rehfeld JF. Four basic characteristics of the gastrin-cholecystokinin system. Am J Physiol 1981; 240: G25566.
  • 29
    Eberlein GA, Eysselein VE, Davis MT, et al. Patterns of prohormone processing. Order revealed by a new procholecystokinin-derived peptide. J Biol Chem 1992; 267: 151721.
  • 30
    Rehfeld JF, Sun G, Christensen T, Hillingso JG. The predominant cholecystokinin in human plasma and intestine is cholecystokinin-33. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 2518.
  • 31
    Rehfeld JF. Clinical endocrinology and metabolism. Cholecystokinin. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 18: 56986.
  • 32
    Kissileff HR, Pi-Sunyer FX, Thornton J, Smith GP. C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin decreases food intake in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34: 15460.
  • 33
    Lieverse RJ, Jansen JB, Masclee AM, Lamers CB. Satiety effects of cholecystokinin in humans. Gastroenterology 1994; 106: 14514.
  • 34
    Pi-Sunyer X, Kissileff HR, Thornton J, Smith GP. C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin decreases food intake in obese men. Physiol Behav 1982; 29: 62730.
  • 35
    Muurahainen N, Kissileff HR, Derogatis AJ, Pi-Sunyer FX. Effects of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) on food intake and gastric emptying in man. Physiol Behav 1988; 44: 6459.
  • 36
    Kissileff HR, Carretta JC, Geliebter A, Pi-Sunyer FX. Cholecystokinin and stomach distension combine to reduce food intake in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2003; 285: R9928.
  • 37
    Lieverse RJ, Jansen JB, Masclee AA, Lamers CB. Satiety effects of a physiological dose of cholecystokinin in humans. Gut 1995; 36: 1769.
  • 38
    Matzinger D, Gutzwiller JP, Drewe J, et al. Inhibition of food intake in response to intestinal lipid is mediated by cholecystokinin in humans. Am J Physiol 1999; 277: R171824.
  • 39
    Beglinger C, Degen L, Matzinger D, D’Amato M, Drewe J. Loxiglumide, a CCK-A receptor antagonist, stimulates calorie intake and hunger feelings in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2001; 280: R114954.
  • 40
    Spiller RC, Trotman IF, Higgins BE, et al. The ileal brake – inhibition of jejunal motility after ileal fat perfusion in man. Gut 1984; 25: 36574.
  • 41
    Joyner K, Smith GP, Gibbs J. Abdominal vagotomy decreases the satiating potency of CCK-8 in sham and real feeding. Am J Physiol 1993; 264: R9126.
  • 42
    Hayes MR, Covasa M. Dorsal hindbrain 5-HT3 receptors participate in control of meal size and mediate CCK-induced satiation. Brain Res 2006; 1103: 99107.
  • 43
    Van De Wall EH, Duffy P, Ritter RC. CCK enhances response to gastric distension by acting on capsaicin-insensitive vagal afferents. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2005; 289: R695703.
  • 44
    Kojima M, Hosoda H, Date Y, Nakazato M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K. Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach. Nature 1999; 402: 65660.
  • 45
    Jeon TY, Lee S, Kim HH, et al. Changes in plasma ghrelin concentration immediately after gastrectomy in patients with early gastric cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 53926.
  • 46
    Leite-Moreira AF, Soares JB. Physiological, pathological and potential therapeutic roles of ghrelin. Drug Discov Today 2007; 12: 27688.
  • 47
    Wren AM, Seal LJ, Cohen MA, et al. Ghrelin enhances appetite and increases food intake in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 5992.
  • 48
    Cummings DE, Purnell JQ, Frayo RS, Schmidova K, Wisse BE, Weigle DS. A preprandial rise in plasma ghrelin levels suggests a role in meal initiation in humans. Diabetes 2001; 50: 17149.
  • 49
    Drazen DL, Vahl TP, D’Alessio DA, Seeley RJ, Woods SC. Effects of a fixed meal pattern on ghrelin secretion: evidence for a learned response independent of nutrient status. Endocrinology 2006; 147: 2330.
  • 50
    Natalucci G, Riedl S, Gleiss A, Zidek T, Frisch H. Spontaneous 24-h ghrelin secretion pattern in fasting subjects: maintenance of a meal-related pattern. Eur J Endocrinol 2005; 152: 84550.
  • 51
    Teff K. Learning hunger: conditioned anticipatory ghrelin responses in energy homeostasis. Endocrinology 2006; 147: 202.
  • 52
    Higgins SC, Gueorguiev M, Korbonits M. Ghrelin, the peripheral hunger hormone. Ann Med 2007; 39: 11636.
  • 53
    Callahan HS, Cummings DE, Pepe MS, Breen PA, Matthys CC, Weigle DS. Postprandial suppression of plasma ghrelin level is proportional to ingested caloric load but does not predict intermeal interval in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 131924.
  • 54
    Overduin J, Frayo RS, Grill HJ, Kaplan JM, Cummings DE. Role of the duodenum and macronutrient type in ghrelin regulation. Endocrinology 2005; 146: 84550.
  • 55
    Williams DL, Cummings DE, Grill HJ, Kaplan JM. Meal-related ghrelin suppression requires postgastric feedback. Endocrinology 2003; 144: 27657.
  • 56
    Caixas A, Bashore C, Nash W, Pi-Sunyer F, Laferrere B. Insulin, unlike food intake, does not suppress ghrelin in human subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87: 1902.
  • 57
    Saad MF, Bernaba B, Hwu CM, et al. Insulin regulates plasma ghrelin concentration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87: 39974000.
  • 58
    Murdolo G, Lucidi P, Di LC, et al. Insulin is required for prandial ghrelin suppression in humans. Diabetes 2003; 52: 29237.
  • 59
    Leonetti F, Iacobellis G, Ribaudo MC, et al. Acute insulin infusion decreases plasma ghrelin levels in uncomplicated obesity. Regul Pept 2004; 122: 17983.
  • 60
    Le Roux CW, Neary NM, Halsey TJ, et al. Ghrelin does not stimulate food intake in patients with surgical procedures involving vagotomy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90: 45214.
  • 61
    Schirra J, Goke B. The physiological role of GLP-1 in human: incretin, ileal brake or more? Regul Pept 2005; 128: 10915.
  • 62
    Brubaker PL, Anini Y. Direct and indirect mechanisms regulating secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-2. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2003; 81: 100512.
  • 63
    Verdich C, Flint A, Gutzwiller JP, et al. A meta-analysis of the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36) amide on ad libitum energy intake in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 43829.
  • 64
    Zander M, Madsbad S, Madsen JL, Holst JJ. Effect of 6-week course of glucagon-like peptide 1 on glycaemic control, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes: a parallel-group study. Lancet 2002; 359: 82430.
  • 65
    Vilsboll T, Zdravkovic M, Le-Thi T, et al. Liraglutide, a long-acting human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, given as monotherapy significantly improves glycemic control and lowers body weight without risk of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2007; 30: 160810.
  • 66
    Degen L, Oesch S, Matzinger D, et al. Effects of a preload on reduction of food intake by GLP-1 in healthy subjects. Digestion 2006; 74: 7884.
  • 67
    Abbott CR, Monteiro M, Small CJ, et al. The inhibitory effects of peripheral administration of peptide YY(3–36) and glucagon-like peptide-1 on food intake are attenuated by ablation of the vagal-brainstem-hypothalamic pathway. Brain Res 2005; 1044: 12731.
  • 68
    Baggio LL, Huang Q, Brown TJ, Drucker DJ. Oxyntomodulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 differentially regulate murine food intake and energy expenditure. Gastroenterology 2004; 127: 54658.
  • 69
    Onaga T, Zabielski R, Kato S. Multiple regulation of peptide YY secretion in the digestive tract. Peptides 2002; 23: 27990.
  • 70
    Lin HC, Chey WY, Zhao X. Release of distal gut peptide YY (PYY) by fat in proximal gut depends on CCK. Peptides 2000; 21: 15613.
  • 71
    Lin HC, Taylor IL. Release of peptide YY by fat in the proximal but not distal gut depends on an atropine-sensitive cholinergic pathway. Regul Pept 2004; 117: 736.
  • 72
    Batterham RL, Cowley MA, Small CJ, et al. Gut hormone PYY(3–36) physiologically inhibits food intake. Nature 2002; 418: 6504.
  • 73
    Degen L, Oesch S, Casanova M, et al. Effect of peptide YY3-36 on food intake in humans. Gastroenterology 2005; 129: 14306.
  • 74
    Sloth B, Davidsen L, Holst JJ, Flint A, Astrup A. The effect of subcutaneous injections of PYY1-36 and PYY3-36 on appetite, ad libitum energy intake and plasma free fatty acids concentration in obese males. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007; 293: E6049.
  • 75
    Sloth B, Holst JJ, Flint A, Gregersen NT, Astrup A. Effects of PYY1-36 and PYY3-36 on appetite, energy intake, energy expenditure, glucose and fat metabolism in obese and lean subjects. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007; 292: E10628.
  • 76
    Boggiano MM, Chandler PC, Oswald KD, et al. PYY3-36 as an anti-obesity drug target. Obes Rev 2005; 6: 30722.
  • 77
    Chelikani PK, Haver AC, Reeve J Jr, Keire DA, Reidelberger RD. Daily, intermittent intravenous infusion of peptide YY(3–36) reduces daily food intake and adiposity in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2006; 290: R298305.
  • 78
    Abbott CR, Small CJ, Sajedi A, et al. The importance of acclimatisation and habituation to experimental conditions when investigating the anorectic effects of gastrointestinal hormones in the rat. Int J Obes (Lond) 2006; 30: 28892.
  • 79
    Koda S, Date Y, Murakami N, et al. The role of the vagal nerve in peripheral PYY3-36-induced feeding reduction in rats. Endocrinology 2005; 146: 236975.
  • 80
    Meyer JH, Elashoff JD, Doty JE, Gu YG. Disproportionate ileal digestion on canine food consumption. A possible model for satiety in pancreatic insufficiency. Dig Dis Sci 1994; 39: 101424.
  • 81
    Read NW, McFarlane A, Kinsman RI, et al. Effect of infusion of nutrient solutions into the ileum on gastrointestinal transit and plasma levels of neurotensin and enteroglucagon. Gastroenterology 1984; 86: 27480.
  • 82
    Spiller RC, Trotman IF, Adrian TE, Bloom SR, Misiewicz JJ, Silk DB. Further characterisation of the ‘ileal brake’ reflex in man – effect of ileal infusion of partial digests of fat, protein, and starch on jejunal motility and release of neurotensin, enteroglucagon, and peptide YY. Gut 1988; 29: 104251.
  • 83
    Van Citters GW, Lin HC. Ileal brake: neuropeptidergic control of intestinal transit. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2006; 8: 36773.
  • 84
    Layer P, Holst JJ, Grandt D, Goebell H. Ileal release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Association with inhibition of gastric acid secretion in humans. Dig Dis Sci 1995; 40: 107482.
  • 85
    Layer P, Peschel S, Schlesinger T, Goebell H. Human pancreatic secretion and intestinal motility: effects of ileal nutrient perfusion. Am J Physiol 1990; 258: G196201.
  • 86
    Keller J, Holst JJ, Layer P. Inhibition of human pancreatic and biliary output but not intestinal motility by physiological intraileal lipid loads. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2006; 290: G7049.
  • 87
    Welch IM, Sepple CP, Read NW. Comparisons of the effects on satiety and eating behaviour of infusion of lipid into the different regions of the small intestine. Gut 1988; 29: 30611.
  • 88
    Welch I, Saunders K, Read NW. Effect of ileal and intravenous infusions of fat emulsions on feeding and satiety in human volunteers. Gastroenterology 1985; 89: 12937.
  • 89
    Welch IM, Davison PA, Worlding J, Read NW. Effect of ileal infusion of lipid on jejunal motor patterns after a nutrient and nonnutrient meal. Am J Physiol 1988; 255: G8006.
  • 90
    Maljaars J, Haddeman E, Peters H., Masclee A. Comparison of ileal and duodenal brake mechanisms on satiety and gastrointestinal transport. Gastroenterology 2007; 132 (Suppl. 2): A207.
  • 91
    Bray GA, Benfield JR. Intestinal bypass for obesity a summary and perspective. Am J Clin Nutr 1977; 30: 1217.
  • 92
    Payne JH, DeWind LT. Surgical treatment of obesity. Am J Surg 1969; 118: 1417.
  • 93
    Condon SC, Janes NJ, Wise L, Alpers DH. Role of caloric intake in the weight loss after jejunoileal bypass for obesity. Gastroenterology 1978; 74: 347.
  • 94
    Pilkington TR, Gazet JC, Ang L, Kalucy RS, Crisp AH, Day S. Explanations for weight loss after ileojejunal bypass in gross obesity. Br Med J 1976; 1: 15045.
  • 95
    Bray GA, Barry RE, Benfield JR, Castelnuovo-Tedesco P, Rodin J. Intestinal bypass surgery for obesity decreases food intake and taste preferences. Am J Clin Nutr 1976; 29: 77983.
  • 96
    Backman L, Wiklund B, Svane B, Hallberg D. A roentgenological study of the small intestine after different intestinal bypass operations for treatment of morbid obesity. Int J Obes 1982; 6: 20510.
  • 97
    Naslund E, Melin I, Gryback P, et al. Reduced food intake after jejunoileal bypass: a possible association with prolonged gastric emptying and altered gut hormone patterns. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66: 2632.
  • 98
    Atkinson RL. Obesity surgery as a model for understanding the regulation of food intake and body weight. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66: 1845.
  • 99
    Naslund E, Gryback P, Backman L, et al. Distal small bowel hormones: correlation with fasting antroduodenal motility and gastric emptying. Dig Dis Sci 1998; 43: 94552.
  • 100
    Schirra J, Shakir S, Nicolaus M, Woerle J, Goeke B. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) mediated the ‘ileal brake’ in humans. Gastroenterology 2006; 130 (Suppl. 2): A544.
  • 101
    Pironi L, Stanghellini V, Miglioli M, et al. Fat-induced ileal brake in humans: a dose-dependent phenomenon correlated to the plasma levels of peptide YY. Gastroenterology 1993; 105: 7339.
  • 102
    Wen J, Phillips SF, Sarr MG, Kost LJ, Holst JJ. PYY and GLP-1 contribute to feedback inhibition from the canine ileum and colon. Am J Physiol 1995; 269: G94552.
  • 103
    Lin HC, Chen JH. Slowing of intestinal transit by fat depends on an ondansetron – sensitive, efferent serotonergic pathway. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2003; 15: 31722.
  • 104
    Lin HC, Neevel C, Chen PS, Suh G, Chen JH. Slowing of intestinal transit by fat or peptide YY depends on beta-adrenergic pathway. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2003; 285: G13106.