• 1
    Custer B, Sullivan SD, Hazlet TK, Iloeje U, Veenstra DL, Kowdley KV. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B virus. J Clin Gastroenterol 2004; 38: S15868.
  • 2
    Lee TA, Veenstra DL, Iloeje UH, Sullivan SD. Cost of chronic hepatitis B infection in the United States. J Clin Gastroenterol 2004; 38: S1447.
  • 3
    Ganem D, Prince AM. Hepatitis B virus infection – natural history and clinical consequences. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 111829.
  • 4
    Chu CJ, Keeffe EB, Han SH, et al. Prevalence of HBV precore/core promoter variants in the United States. Hepatology 2003; 38: 61928.
  • 5
    Gish RG, Gadano AC. Chronic hepatitis B: current epidemiology in the Americas and implications for management. J Viral Hepat 2006; 13: 78798.
  • 6
    Huang S, Shallow S, Stier D, et al. Characteristics of persons with Chronic Hepatitis B – San Francisco, California, 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2007; 56: 4468.
  • 7
    Lai CL, Ratziu V, Yuen MF, Poynard T. Viral hepatitis B. Lancet 2003; 362: 208994.
  • 8
    Iloeje UH, Yang HI, Su J, Jen CL, You SL, Chen CJ. Predicting cirrhosis risk based on the level of circulating hepatitis B viral load. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 67886.
  • 9
    Liaw YF, Tai DI, Chu CM, et al. Early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic type B hepatitis. A prospective study. Gastroenterology 1986; 90: 2637.
  • 10
    Chen CJ, Yang HI, Su J, et al. Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma across a biological gradient of serum hepatitis B virus DNA level. JAMA 2006; 295: 6573.
  • 11
    Perrillo RP, Gish RG, Peters M, et al. Chronic hepatitis B: a critical appraisal of current approaches to therapy. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 4: 23348.
  • 12
    Mommeja-Marin H, Mondou E, Blum MR, Rousseau F. Serum HBV DNA as a marker of efficacy during therapy for chronic HBV infection: analysis and review of the literature. Hepatology 2003; 37: 130919.
  • 13
    Lok AS. The maze of treatments for hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 27436.
  • 14
    Lok A, McMahon B. AASLD Practice Guidelines: Chronic Hepatitis B. Hepatology 2007; 45: 50739.
  • 15
    Veenstra DL, Sullivan SD, Clarke L, et al. Cost Effectiveness of Entecavir vs. Lamivudine with Adefovir Salvage in HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B. Pharmacoeconomics 2007; 25: 96377.
  • 16
    Lipscomb J, Weinstein MC, Torrance GW. Time Preference. In: GoldMR, SiegelJE, RussellLB, WeinsteinMC, eds. Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996: 21446.
  • 17
    Lai C-L, Shouval D, Lok AS, et al. Entecavir vs. Lamivudine for Patients with HBeAg-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 101120.
  • 18
    Hadziyannis SJ, Tassopoulos NC, Heathcote EJ, et al. Adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 8007.
  • 19
    Hadziyannis SJ, Tassopoulos NC, Heathcote EJ, et al. Long-term therapy with adefovir dipivoxil for HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 267381.
  • 20
    Hsu YS, Chien RN, Yeh CT, et al. Long-term outcome after spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2002; 35: 15227.
  • 21
    Fattovich G, Pantalena M, Zagni I, Realdi G, Schalm SW, Christensen E. Effect of hepatitis B and C virus infections on the natural history of compensated cirrhosis: a cohort study of 297 patients. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97: 288695.
    Direct Link:
  • 22
    De Jongh FE, Janssen HL, De Man RA, Hop WC, Schalm SW, Van Blankenstein M. Survival and prognostic indicators in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive cirrhosis of the liver. Gastroenterology 1992; 103: 16305.
  • 23
    Shepherd J, Jones J, Takeda A, Davidson P, Price A. Adefovir dipivoxil and pegylated interferon alfa-2a for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess 2006; 10: iiiiv, xi–xiv, 1–183.
  • 24
    Kanwal F, Gralnek IM, Martin P, Dulai GS, Farid M, Spiegel BM. Treatment alternatives for chronic hepatitis B virus infection: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142: 82131.
  • 25
    Vassiliadis T, Nikolaidis N, Giouleme O, et al. Adefovir dipivoxil added to ongoing lamivudine therapy in patients with lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005; 21: 5317.
  • 26
    Lampertico P, Vigano M, Manenti E, Iavarone M, Lunghi G, Colombo M. Adefovir rapidly suppresses hepatitis B in HBeAg-negative patients developing genotypic resistance to lamivudine. Hepatology 2005; 42: 14149.
  • 27
    Rapti I, Dimou E, Mitsoula P, Hadziyannis SJ. Adding-on vs. switching-to adefovir therapy in lamivudine-resistant HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2007; 45: 30713.
  • 28
    Hadziyannis S, Sevastianos V, Rapti I, Tassopoulos N. Sustained biochemical and virological remission after discontinuation of 4 to 5 years of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) treatment in HBe-Ag-negative chronic hepatitis B. 57th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), Boston, MA, 27–31 October 2006.
  • 29
    Hadziyannis SJ, Tassopoulos NC, Heathcote EJ, et al. Long-term therapy with adefovir dipivoxil for HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B for up to 5 years. Gastroenterology 2006; 131: 174351.
  • 30
    EASL. EASL International Consensus Conference on Hepatitis B. 13–14 September, 2002: Geneva, Switzerland. Consensus statement (short version). J Hepatol 2003; 38: 53340.
  • 31
    Bonino F, Rosina F, Rizzetto M, et al. Chronic hepatitis in HBsAg carriers with serum HBV-DNA and anti-HBe. Gastroenterology 1986; 90: 126873.
  • 32
    Brunetto MR, Giarin M, Oliveri F, et al. ‘e’ antigen defective hepatitis B virus and course of chronic infection. J Hepatol 1991; 13(Suppl 4): S826.
  • 33
    Arias E. National Vital Statistics Reports, United States Life Tables, 2002, Vol. 53. Statistics, MD: National Center for Health, 2004.
  • 34
    Crowley S, Tognarini D, Desmond P, Lees M, Saal G. Introduction of lamivudine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: expected clinical and economic outcomes based on 4-year clinical trial data. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002; 17: 15364.
  • 35
    Shepherd J, Jones J, Takeda A, Davidson P, Price A. Adefovir Dipivoxil and Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2a for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B – A Systematic Review and Economic Evaluation. UK: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Southampton Health Technology Assessments Centre (SHTAC), 2005.
  • 36
    Kim WR, Poterucha JJ, Kremers WK, Ishitani MB, Dickson ER. Outcome of liver transplantation for hepatitis B in the United States. Liver Transpl 2004; 10: 96874.
  • 37
    Kim WR, Veenstra DL, Iloeje UH, et al. The natural history of chronic hepatitis B infection: a new computer simulation model to incorporate events subsequent to HBeAg seroconversion. Digestive Disease Week, Chicago, IL, 14–19 May, 2005.
  • 38
    Wong JB, Koff RS, Tine F, Pauker SG. Cost-effectiveness of interferon-alpha 2b treatment for hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B. Ann Intern Med 1995; 122: 66475.
  • 39
    Pwu RF, Chan KA. Cost-effectiveness analysis of interferon-alpha therapy in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc 2002; 101: 63241.
  • 40
    Lai CL, Chang TT, Chao YC, et al. Entecavir 96-Week Data in HBeAg-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B. Manila, Philippines: Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver, APASL, 2006.
  • 41
    Marcellin P, Lau GK, Bonino F, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a alone, lamivudine alone, and the two in combination in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 120617.
  • 42
    Colonno R, Rose R, Pokornowski K, Baldick C, Klesczewski K, Tenney D. Assessment at three years shows high barrier to resistance is maintained in entecavir-treated nucleoside naïve patients while resistance emergence increases over time in lamivudine refractory patients. AASLD Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, 2006.
  • 43
    Colonno RJ, Rose R, Baldick CJ, et al. Entecavir resistance is rare in nucleoside naive patients with hepatitis B. Hepatology 2006; 44: 165665.
  • 44
    Di Marco V, Marzano A, Lampertico P, et al. Clinical outcome of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B in relation to virological response to lamivudine. Hepatology 2004; 40: 88391.
  • 45
    Salomon JA, Weinstein MC, Hammitt JK, Goldie SJ. Cost-effectiveness of treatment for chronic hepatitis C infection in an evolving patient population. JAMA 2003; 290: 22837.
  • 46
    Chen PJ, Chen DS. Hepatitis B virus infection. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 1312; author reply 1312–3.
  • 47
    AnalySource. Wholesale Acquisition Cost: AnalySource Inc. East Syracuse, NY: DMD America, 2007.
  • 48
    Levy AR, Kowdley KV, Iloeje U, et al. The impact of chronic hepatitis B on quality of life: a multinational study of utilities from infected and non-infected persons. Value Health 2007; PMID: 18179664.
  • 49
    Fenwick E, Claxton K, Sculpher M. Representing uncertainty: the role of cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Health Econ 2001; 10: 77987.
  • 50
    Fenwick E, Marshall DA, Levy AR, Nichol G. Using and interpreting cost-effectiveness acceptability curves: an example using data from a trial of management strategies for atrial fibrillation. BMC Health Serv Res 2006; 6: 52.
  • 51
    Yuen MF, Lai CL. Combination therapy for chronic hepatitis B: simultaneous or sequential? Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102: 1056.
    Direct Link:
  • 52
    McMahon BJ, Holck P, Bulkow L, Snowball M. Serologic and clinical outcomes of 1536 Alaska Natives chronically infected with hepatitis B virus. Ann Intern Med 2001; 135: 75968.
  • 53
    Fattovich G, Giustina G, Degos F, et al. Morbidity and mortality in compensated cirrhosis type C: a retrospective follow-up study of 384 patients. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 46372.
  • 54
    Bolondi L, Sofia S, Siringo S, et al. Surveillance programme of cirrhotic patients for early diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: a cost effectiveness analysis. Gut 2001; 48: 2519.
  • 55
    Lok AS, Lai CL, Leung N, et al. Long-term safety of lamivudine treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 171422.
  • 56
    Hoofnagle JH, Lau D. Chronic viral hepatitis – benefits of current therapies. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 14701.