• 1
    Abu-Shakra M, Guillemin F, Lee P. Gastrointestinal manifestations of systemic sclerosis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1994; 24: 2939.
  • 2
    Marie I, Dominique S, Levesque H, et al. Esophageal involvement and pulmonary manifestations in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 45: 34654.
  • 3
    Marie I, Ducrotté P, Denis P, Hellot MF, Levesque H. Oesophageal mucosal involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis receiving proton pump inhibitor therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006; 24: 1593601.
  • 4
    Marie I, Ducrotté P, Hellot MF, Denis P, Levesque H. Outcome of small bowel motor impairment in systemic sclerosis: a prospective manometric 5-year follow-up. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2007; 46: 1503.
  • 5
    Marie I, Levesque H, Ducrotté P, et al. Gastric involvement in systemic sclerosis: a prospective study. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 41: 187483.
  • 6
    Marie I, Levesque H, Ducrotté P, et al. Manometry of the upper intestinal tract in patients with systemic sclerosis: a prospective study. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 96: 7783.
  • 7
    Poirier TJ, Rankin GB. Gastrointestinal manifestations of progressive systemic scleroderma based on a review of 364 cases. Am J Gastroenterol 1972; 58: 3044.
  • 8
    Sallam H, McNearney TA, Chen JDZ. Systematic review: pathophysiology and management of gastrointestinal dysmotility in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Aliment Phamacol Ther 2006; 23: 691712.
  • 9
    Sjögren RW. Gastrointestinal motility disorders in scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 126582.
  • 10
    Sjögren RW. Gastrointestinal features of scleroderma. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1996; 8: 56975.
  • 11
    Gilliam JH, Geisinger KR, Wu WC, Weidner N, Richter JE. Endoscopic biopsy is diagnostic in gastric antral vascular ectasia the “watermelon stomach”. Dig Dis Sci 1989; 34: 8858.
  • 12
    Gostout CJ, Viggiano TR, Ahlquist DA, Wang KK, Larson MV, Balm R. The clinical and endoscopic spectrum of the watermelon stomach. J Clin Gastroenterol 1992; 15: 25663.
  • 13
    Jabbari M, Cherry R, Lough JO, Daly S. Gastric antral vascular ectasia: the watermelon stomach. Gastroenterology 1984; 87: 116570.
  • 14
    Suit PF, Petras E, Bauer TW, Petrini JL. Gastric antral vascular ectasia: a histologic and morphometric study of the “watermelon stomach”. Am J Surg Pathol 1987; 11: 7507.
  • 15
    Subcommittee for scleroderma Criteria of the American Rheumatism Association Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee. Preliminary criteria for the classification of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Arthritis Rheum 1980; 23: 58190.
  • 16
    Leroy EC, Black C, Fleischmajer R, et al. Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis): classification, subsets and pathogenesis. J Rheumatol 1988; 15: 2025.
  • 17
    Lecleire S, Ben-Soussan E, Antonietti M, et al. Bleeding gastric antral vascular ectasia treated by argon plasma coagulation: a comparison between patients with and without cirrhosis. Gastrointest Endosc 2008; 67: 21925.
  • 18
    Beales ILP. Watermelon stomach in the CREST syndrome. Postgrad Med J 1994; 70: 7667.
  • 19
    Brumit M, Carter E. Patient with systemic sclerosis and anemia. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2002; 126: 3756.
  • 20
    Busteed S, Silke C, Molloy C, Murphy M, Molloy MG. Gastric antral vascular ectasia – a cause of refractory anemia in systemic sclerosis. Ir Med J 2001; 94: 310.
  • 21
    Calamia KT, Scolapio JS, Viggiano TR. Endoscopic YAG laser treatment of watermelon stomach (gastric antral vascular ectasia) in patients with systemic sclerosis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2000; 18: 6058.
  • 22
    Carbone LD, McOwn KM, St Hilaire RJ, Dean P, Kaplan SB, Cattau EL Jr. Scleroderma and the watermelon stomach. Ann Rheum Dis 1996; 55: 5601.
  • 23
    Diederichsen AC, Rasmussen JM. Watermelon stomach in scleroderma. Ugeskr Laeger 2002; 164: 2047.
  • 24
    Elkayam O, Oumanski M, Yaron M, Caspi D. Watermelon stomach following and preceding systemic sclerosis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2000; 30: 12731.
  • 25
    El-Omar MM, Jenkins AP, Hollowood K, Banerjee AK, Thompson RPH. Gastric telangiectasis: a rare cause of severe blood loss in CREST syndrome. Postgrad Med J 1994; 70: 3024.
  • 26
    Fabian G, Tovari E, Baranyay F, Czirjak L. Watermelon-stomach as a cause of chronic iron deficiency anemia in a patient with systemic sclerosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 1999; 12: 1614.
  • 27
    Ingraham KM, O’Brien MS, Derk CT, Steen VD. Gastric antral vascular ectasia in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 56(Suppl): S58.
  • 28
    Jouanolle H, Bretagne JF, Ramee MP, et al. Ectasie vasculaire antrale et sclérodermie. Aspects endoscopiques, radiologiques et anatomopathologiques d’une association originale. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1989; 13: 21721.
  • 29
    Klump B, Schneider GA, Fierlbeck G, Hoeft S, Gregor M, Porschen R. Argon plasma coagulation in endoscopic Therapy of CREST syndrome associated upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Z Gastroenterol 1997; 35: 46976.
  • 30
    Lorenzi AR, Johnson AH, Gough A. Gastric antral vascular ectasia in systemic sclerosis: complete resolution with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Ann Rheum Dis 2001; 60: 7968.
  • 31
    Manolios N, Eliades C, Duncombe V, Spencer D. Scleroderma and watermelon stomach. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 7768.
  • 32
    Murphy FT, Enzenauer J, Cheney CP. Watermelon stomach. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 573.
  • 33
    Papo T, Tusseau F, Piette JC, Eugene C, Bletry O, Godeau P. Estomac pastèque et sclérodermie: une association non fortuite. Ann Med Interne 1995; 146: 18990.
  • 34
    Rosekrans PCM, De Rooy DY, Bosman FT, Eulderink F, Cats A. Gastrointestinal telangiectasia as a cause of severe blood loss in systemic sclerosis. Endoscopy 1980; 12: 2004.
  • 35
    Schoonbroodt D, Horsmans Y, Hoang P, Poncelet-Maton E, Laka A, Geubel A. Anomalies vasculaires gastriques, CREST syndrome et cirrhose biliaire primitive: efficacité de l’association éthynylœstradiol-noréthistérone. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1994; 18: 64951.
  • 36
    Scolapio JS, Matteson EL. The watermelon stomach in scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum 1993; 36: 7245.
  • 37
    Shibukawa G, Irisawa A, Sakamoto N, et al. Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) associated with systemic sclerosis: relapse after endoscopic treatment by argon plasma coagulation. Intern Med 2007; 46: 27983.
  • 38
    Szigeti N, Fabian G, Czirjak L. Fatal scleroderma renal crisis caused by gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with scleroderma, Sjögren’s syndrome and primary biliary cirrhosis overlap. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2002; 16: 2769.
  • 39
    Taylor A, Sanders DS, Lobo AJ, Snaith ML. Gastric antral vascular ectasia as the only presenting feature of limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis. J Clin Gastroenterol 2002; 34: 4901.
  • 40
    Watson M, Hally RJ, McCue PA, Varga J, Jimenez SA. Gastric antral vascular ectasia (watermelon stomach) in patients with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 3416.
  • 41
    Duchini A, Sessoms SL. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients with systemic sclerosis and CREST syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93: 14536.
    Direct Link:
  • 42
    Sidhu R, Sanders DS, McAlindon ME. Does capsule endoscopy recognise gastric antral vascular ectasia more frequently than conventional endoscopy? J Gastrointest Liver Dis 2006; 15: 3757.
  • 43
    Kitiyakara T, Selby W. Non-small bowel lesions detected by capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure GI bleeding. Gastrointest Endosc 2005; 62: 2348.
  • 44
    Tang SJ, Zanati S, Kandel G, Marcon NE, Kortan P. Gastric intestinal vascular ectasia syndrome: findings on capsule endoscopy. Endoscopy 2005; 37: 12447.
  • 45
    Gürsoy M, Baysal C, Demirhan B, Moray G, Boyacioglu S. Rectal vascular ectasia associated with watermelon stomach. Gastrointest Endosc 1999; 50: 8547.
  • 46
    Singh D, Shill M, Kaur H. The watermelon rectum. J Clin Gastroenterol 2001; 33: 1646.
  • 47
    Dulai GS, Jensen DM. Treatment of watermelon stomach. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol 2006; 9: 17580.
  • 48
    Sebastian S, O’Morain CA, Buckley MJ. Review article: current therapeutic options for gastric antral vascular ectasia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 18: 15765.
  • 49
    Nardone G, Rocco A, Balzano T, Budillon G. The efficacy of octreotide therapy in chronic bleeding due to vascular abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999; 13: 142936.
  • 50
    Dunne KA, Hill J, Dillon JF. Treatment of chronic transfusion-dependent gastric antral vascular ectasia (watermelon stomach) with thalidomide. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 18: 4556.
  • 51
    Farooq FT, Wong RCK, Yang P, Post AB. Gastric outlet obstruction as a complication of argon plasma coagulation for watermelon stomach. Gastrointest Endosc 2007; 65: 10902.
  • 52
    Kwan V, Bourke MJ, Williams SJ, et al. Argon plasma coagulation in the management of symptomatic gastrointestinal vascular lesions: experience in 100 cosnecutive patients with long-term follow-up. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101: 5863.
    Direct Link:
  • 53
    Roman S, Saurin JC, Dumortier J, Perreira A, Bernard G, Ponchon T. Tolerance and efficacy of argon plasma coagulation for controlling bleeding in patients with typical and atypical manifestations of watermelon stomach. Endoscopy 2003; 35: 10248.
  • 54
    Gross SA, Al-Haddad M, Gill KRS, Schore AN, Wallace MB. Endoscopic mucosal ablation for the treatment of gastric antral vascular ectasia with the HALO90 system: a pilot study. Gastrointest Endosc 2008; 67: 3247.