• 1
    Elion GB. The purine path to chemotherapy. Science 1989; 244: 417.
  • 2
    Fraser AG, Orchard TR, Jewell DP. The efficacy of azathioprine for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: a 30 year review. Gut 2002; 50: 4859.
  • 3
    Cosnes J, Nion-Larmurier I, Beaugerie L, Afchain P, Tiret E, Gendre JP. Impact of the increasing use of immunosuppressants in Crohn’s disease on the need for intestinal surgery. Gut 2005; 54: 23741.
  • 4
    Present DH, Meltzer SJ, Krumholz MP, Wolke A, Korelitz BI. 6-Mercaptopurine in the management of inflammatory bowel disease: short- and long-term toxicity. Ann Intern Med 1989; 111: 6419.
  • 5
    Hindorf U, Lindqvist M, Hildebrand H, Fagerberg U, Almer S. Adverse events leading to modification of therapy in a large cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006; 24: 33142.
  • 6
    Gisbert JP, Gonzalez-Lama Y, Mate J. Thiopurine-induced liver injury in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102: 151827.
    Direct Link:
  • 7
    Bastida G, Nos P, Aguas M, et al. Incidence, risk factors and clinical course of thiopurine-induced liver injury in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005; 22: 77582.
  • 8
    Sandborn W, Sutherland L, Pearson D, May G, Modigliani R, Prantera C. Azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine for inducing remission of Crohn’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 2: CD000545.
  • 9
    Dubinsky MC, Yang H, Hassard PV, et al. 6-MP metabolite profiles provide a biochemical explanation for 6-MP resistance in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 90415.
  • 10
    Marinaki AM, Ansari A, Duley JA, et al. Adverse drug reactions to azathioprine therapy are associated with polymorphism in the gene encoding inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPase). Pharmacogenetics 2004; 14: 1817.
  • 11
    Chocair P, Duley J, Simmonds HA, et al. Low-dose allopurinol plus azathioprine/cyclosporin/prednisolone, a novel immunosuppressive regimen. Lancet 1993; 342: 834.
  • 12
    Chrzanowska M, Krzymanski M. Determination of 6-thioguanine and 6-methylmercaptopurine metabolites in renal transplantation recipients and patients with glomerulonephritis treated with azathioprine. Ther Drug Monit 1999; 21: 2317.
  • 13
    Baburajan B, Duley J, O’Donaghue J, et al. Azathioprine hepatotoxicity – is there a protective role for allopurinol? Gut 2006; 55(Suppl. 5): A136.
  • 14
    Sparrow M, Hande S, Friedman S, et al. Allopurinol safely and effectively optimizes tioguanine metabolites in inflammatory bowel disease patients not responding to azathioprine and mercaptopurine. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005; 22: 4416.
  • 15
    Sparrow MP, Hande SA, Friedman S, Cao D, Hanauer SB. Effect of allopurinol on clinical outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease nonresponders to azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 5: 20914.
  • 16
    Benichou C. Criteria of drug-induced liver disorders. Report of an international consensus meeting. J Hepatol 1990; 11: 2726.
  • 17
    Witte TN, Ginsberg AL. Use of allopurinol with low-dose 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease to achieve optimal active metabolite levels: a review of four cases and the literature. Can J Gastroenterol 2008; 22: 1815.
  • 18
    Lewis JH, Zimmerman HJ, Benson GD, Ishak KG. Hepatic injury associated with ketoconazole therapy. Analysis of 33 cases. Gastroenterology 1984; 86: 50313.
  • 19
    McGovern DP, Travis SP, Duley J, Shobowale-Bakre el M, Dalton HR. Azathioprine intolerance in patients with IBD may be imidazole-related and is independent of TPMT activity. Gastroenterology 2002; 122: 8389.
  • 20
    EBPG EGoRT. European best practice guidelines for renal transplantation. Section IV: Long-term management of the transplant recipient. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2002; 17(Suppl. 4): 167.
  • 21
    Duley JA, Florin TH. Thiopurine therapies: problems, complexities, and progress with monitoring thioguanine nucleotides. Ther Drug Monit 2005; 27: 64754.
  • 22
    Romagnuolo J, Sadowski DC, Lalor E, Jewell L, Thomson AB. Cholestatic hepatocellular injury with azathioprine: a case report and review of the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. Can J Gastroenterol 1998; 12: 47983.