Review article: anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action of Saccharomyces boulardii
Article first published online: 23 JUL 2009
© 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Volume 30, Issue 8, pages 826–833, October 2009
How to Cite
POTHOULAKIS, C. (2009), Review article: anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action of Saccharomyces boulardii. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 30: 826–833. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2009.04102.x
- Issue published online: 16 SEP 2009
- Article first published online: 23 JUL 2009
- Publication data Submitted 10 April 2009 First decision 28 April 2009 Resubmitted 17 July 2009 Accepted 20 July 2009 Epub Accepted Article 23 July 2009
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 30, 826–833
Background Saccharomyces boulardii, a well-studied probiotic, can be effective in inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases with diverse pathophysiology, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and bacterially mediated or enterotoxin-mediated diarrhoea and inflammation.
Aim To discuss the mechanisms of action involved in the intestinal anti-inflammatory action of S. boulardii.
Methods Review of the literature related to the anti-inflammatory effects of this probiotic.
Results Several mechanisms of action have been identified directed against the host and pathogenic microorganisms. S. boulardii and S. boulardii secreted-protein(s) inhibit production of proinflammatory cytokines by interfering with the global mediator of inflammation nuclear factor κB, and modulating the activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 and p38. S. boulardii activates expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) that protects from gut inflammation and IBD. S. boulardii also suppresses ‘bacteria overgrowth’ and host cell adherence, releases a protease that cleaves C. difficile toxin A and its intestinal receptor and stimulates antibody production against toxin A. Recent results indicate that S. boulardii may interfere with IBD pathogenesis by trapping T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes.
Conclusions The multiple anti-inflammatory mechanisms exerted by S. boulardii provide molecular explanations supporting its effectiveness in intestinal inflammatory states.