- Top of page
- Surveillance of high-risk groups
- Prognostic staging
- Early-stage HCC (stages 0 and A)
- Intermediate stage HCC (stage B)
- Advanced HCC (stage C)
- Managing adverse reactions
- Future directions
- Costs of molecular-targeted therapy
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 31, 461–476
Background Hepatocellular carcinoma is the leading cause of death in cirrhosis. A majority of patients present at an advanced stage with poor prognosis.
Aim To review the current screening, diagnosis and management strategies involved in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Methods A literature search was performed using PubMed for publications with a predetermined search string to identify relevant studies.
Results Hepatocellular carcinoma is dramatically increasing in incidence that is mostly attributed to chronic hepatitis C and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and its clinical phenotype diabetes and obesity. Cirrhosis is the major predisposing risk factor and its presence necessitates close surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma with serial imaging studies. Hepatocellular carcinoma can be diagnosed by its unique radiological behaviour of arterial enhancement and washout on delayed images. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging classification system is a clinically useful algorithm for the management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The simultaneous presence of cirrhosis in the patients complicates their management and monitoring for cirrhosis-related complications is important.
Conclusions Early diagnosis and definitive treatment remains the key to long-term outcome. A multidisciplinary approach is critical to the successful management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies combining sorafenib with locoregional or other targeted molecular therapies are likely to improve responses and outcome.