Diarrhoea during enteral nutrition is predicted by the poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrate (FODMAP) content of the formula
Article first published online: 28 JUL 2010
© 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Volume 32, Issue 7, pages 925–933, October 2010
How to Cite
Halmos, E. P., Muir, J. G., Barrett, J. S., Deng, M., Shepherd, S. J. and Gibson, P. R. (2010), Diarrhoea during enteral nutrition is predicted by the poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrate (FODMAP) content of the formula. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 32: 925–933. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2010.04416.x
- Issue published online: 3 SEP 2010
- Article first published online: 28 JUL 2010
- Publication data Submitted 20 April 2010 First decision 1 June 2010 Resubmitted 27 June 2010 Accepted 6 July 2010 EV Pub Online 28 July 2010
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 32: 925–933
Background Although it is recognized that diarrhoea commonly complicates enteral nutrition, the causes remain unknown.
Aim To identify factors associated with diarrhoea in patients receiving enteral nutrition with specific attention to formula composition.
Methods Medical histories of in-patients receiving enteral nutrition were identified by ICD-10-AM coding and randomly selected from the year 2003 to 2008. Clinical and demographic data were extracted. Formulas were classified according to osmolality, fibre and FODMAP (fermentable oligo-, di- and mono-saccharides and polyols) content.
Results Formula FODMAP levels ranged from 10.6 to 36.5 g/day. Of 160 patients receiving enteral nutrition, 61% had diarrhoea. Univariate analysis showed diarrhoea was associated with length of stay >21 days (OR 4.2), enteral nutrition duration >11 days (OR 4.0) and antibiotic use (OR 2.1). After adjusting for influencing variables through a logistic regression model, a greater than five-fold reduction in risk of developing diarrhoea was seen in patients initiated on Isosource 1.5 (P = 0.029; estimated OR 0.18). The only characteristic unique to this formula was its FODMAP content, being 47–71% lower than any other formula.
Conclusions Length of stay and enteral nutrition duration independently predicted diarrhoea development, while being initiated on a lower FODMAP formula reduced the likelihood of diarrhoea. As retrospective evaluation does not support a cause–effect relationship, an interventional study investigating FODMAPs in enteral formula is indicated.