SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    De Franchis R, Primignani M. Natural history of portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. Clin Liver Dis 2001; 5: 64563.
  • 2
    Merkel C, Zoli M, Siringo S, et al. Prognostic indicators of risk for first variceal bleeding in cirrhosis: a multicenter study in 711 patients to validate and improve the North Italian Endoscopic Club (NIEC) index. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 291520.
    Direct Link:
  • 3
    D’Amico G, Pagliaro L, Bosch J. The treatment of portal hypertension: a meta-analytic review. Hepatology 1995; 22: 33254.
  • 4
    Garcia-Tsao G, Sanyal AJ, Grace ND, Carey W. Prevention and management of gastroesophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage in cirrhosis. Hepatology 2007; 46: 92238.
  • 5
    Garcia-Tsao G, Bosch J, Groszmann RJ. Portal hypertension and variceal bleeding – unresolved issues. Summary of an American Association for the study of liver diseases and European Association for the study of the liver single-topic conference. Hepatology 2008; 47: 176472.
  • 6
    Thalheimer U, Bosch J, Burroughs AK. How to prevent varices from bleeding: shades of grey – the case for nonselective beta blockers. Gastroenterology 2007; 133: 202936.
  • 7
    Gluud LL, Klingenberg S, Nikolova D, Gluud C. Banding ligation versus beta-blockers as primary prophylaxis in esophageal varices: systematic review of randomized trials. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102: 28428.
    Direct Link:
  • 8
    Garcia-Pagan JC, Villanueva C, Vila MC, et al. Isosorbide mononitrate in the prevention of first variceal bleed in patients who cannot receive beta-blockers. Gastroenterology 2001; 121: 90814.
  • 9
    Merkel C, Marin R, Sacerdoti D, et al. Long-term results of a clinical trial of nadolol with or without isosorbide mononitrate for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in cirrhosis. Hepatology 2000; 31: 3249.
  • 10
    Gournay J, Masliah C, Martin T, Perrin D, Galmiche JP. Isosorbide mononitrate and propranolol compared with propranolol alone for the prevention of variceal rebleeding. Hepatology 2000; 31: 123945.
  • 11
    Gonzalez R, Zamora J, Gomez-Camarero J, Molinero LM, Banares R, Albillos A. Meta-analysis: Combination endoscopic and drug therapy to prevent variceal rebleeding in cirrhosis. Ann Intern Med 2008; 149: 10922.
  • 12
    Ravipati M, Katragadda S, Swaminathan PD, Molnar J, Zarling E. Pharmacotherapy plus endoscopic intervention is more effective than pharmacotherapy or endoscopy alone in the secondary prevention of esophageal variceal bleeding: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Gastrointest Endosc 2009; 70: 65864.
  • 13
    Ding SH, Liu J, Wang JP. Efficacy of beta-adrenergic blocker plus 5-isosorbide mononitrate and endoscopic band ligation for prophylaxis of esophageal variceal rebleeding: a meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol 2009; 15: 21515.
  • 14
    Gluud LL. Bias in clinical intervention research. Am J Epidemiol 2006; 163: 493501.
  • 15
    Wood L, Egger M, Gluud LL, et al. Empirical evidence of bias in treatment effect estimates in controlled trials with different interventions and outcomes: meta-epidemiological study. BMJ 2008; 336: 6015.
  • 16
    Wetterslev J, Thorlund K, Brok J, Gluud C. Trial sequential analysis may establish when firm evidence is reached in cumulative meta-analysis. J Clin Epidemiol 2008; 61: 6475.
  • 17
    Villanueva C, Balanzo J, Novella MT, et al. Nadolol plus isosorbide mononitrate compared with sclerotherapy for the prevention of variceal rebleeding. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 16249.
  • 18
    Villanueva C, Minana J, Ortiz J, et al. Endoscopic ligation compared with combined treatment with nadolol and isosorbide mononitrate to prevent recurrent variceal bleeding. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 64755.
  • 19
    Villanueva C, Aracil C, Colomo A, et al. Clinical trial: a randomized controlled study on prevention of variceal rebleeding comparing nadolol + ligation vs. hepatic venous pressure gradient-guided pharmacological therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2009; 29: 397408.
  • 20
    Angelico M, Carli L, Piat C, Gentile S, Capocaccia L. Effects of isosorbide-5-mononitrate compared with propranolol on first bleeding and long-term survival in cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 1997; 113: 16329.
  • 21
    Abdelfattah MH, Rashed MA, Elfakhry AA, Soliman MA, Shiha GE. Endoscopic variceal ligation versus pharmacologic treatment of primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding: a randomised study. J Hepatol 2001; 44: S83.
  • 22
    Escorsell A, Banares R, Garcia-Pagan JC, et al. TIPS versus drug therapy in preventing variceal rebleeding in advanced cirrhosis: a randomized controlled trial. Hepatology 2002; 35: 38592.
  • 23
    Garcia-Pagan JC, Morillas R, Banares R, et al. Propranolol plus placebo versus propranolol plus isosorbide-5-mononitrate in the prevention of a first variceal bleed: a double-blind RCT. Hepatology 2003; 37: 12606.
  • 24
    Garcia-Pagan JC, Villanueva C, Albillos A, et al. Nadolol plus isosorbide mononitrate alone or associated with band ligation in the prevention of recurrent bleeding: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Gut 2009; 58: 114450.
  • 25
    D’Amico G, Pasta L, Politi F, et al. Isosorbide mononitrate with nadolol compared to nadolol alone for prevention of the first bleeding in cirrhosis. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial. Gastroenterol Int 2002; 15: 4050.
  • 26
    Patti R, Pasta L, D’Amico G, et al. Isosorbide mononitrate with nadolol compared to nadolol alone for prevention of recurrent bleeding in cirrhosis. A double blind placebo controlled randomized trial. Final report. J Hepatol 2001; 34: 63.
  • 27
    Deplano A, Careddu G, Reho A, et al. The long-term variceal pressure response to nadolol alone vs. nadolol plus isosorbide mononitrate. J Hepatol 2001; 34: 53.
  • 28
    Agrawal SA, Gupta R, Murthy NS, Sarin SK. Comparable efficacy of propranolol plus isosorbide mononitrate and variceal ligation in prevention of variceal rebleed. J Hepatol 2002; 36: 1789.
  • 29
    Borroni G, Salerno F, Cazzaniga M, et al. Nadolol is superior to isosorbide mononitrate for the prevention of the first variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients with ascites. J Hepatol 2002; 37: 31521.
  • 30
    Lui HF, Stanley AJ, Forrest EH, et al. Primary prophylaxis of variceal hemorrhage: a randomized controlled trial comparing band ligation, propranolol, and isosorbide mononitrate. Gastroenterology 2002; 123: 73544.
  • 31
    Patch D, Sabin CA, Goulis J, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of medical therapy versus endoscopic ligation for the prevention of variceal rebleeding in patients with cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 2002; 123: 10139.
  • 32
    Zhang Q, Yuan R, Wang H. The randomized controlled trial of isosorbide mononitrate plus propranolol compared with propranolol alone for the prevention of variceal rebleeding. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2002; 82: 11579.
  • 33
    Abulfutuh AR, Morsy A, Solyman AEG, et al. Study of variceal band ligation, propranolol and isosorbide mononitrate in the prevention of the first variceal bleeding. Gastroenterology 2003; 124: A780.
  • 34
    Sarin SK, Wadhawan M, Gupta R, Shahi H. Evaluation of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) versus propanolol plus isosorbide mononitrate/nadolol (ISMN) in the prevention of variceal rebleeding: comparison of cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients. Dig Dis Sci 2005; 50: 153847.
  • 35
    Shiha G, Menesy A, Seef S, Elfakhry AA, Khalek EA, Khalil N. Endoscopic ligation compared with propranolol and combined isosorbide mononitrates (ISMM) and propranolol to prevent recurrent variceal bleeding: a prospective randomised trial. Gut 2005; 44: A6.
  • 36
    Romero G, Kravetz D, Argonz J, et al. Comparative study between nadolol and 5-isosorbide mononitrate vs. endoscopic band ligation plus sclerotherapy in the prevention of variceal rebleeding in cirrhotic patients: a randomized controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006; 24: 60111.
  • 37
    Wang HM, Lo GH, Chen WC, et al. Comparison of endoscopic variceal ligation and nadolol plus isosorbide-5-mononitrate in the prevention of first variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients. J Chin Med Assoc 2006; 69: 45360.
  • 38
    Lo GH, Chen WC, Lin CK, et al. Improved survival in patients receiving medical therapy as compared with banding ligation for the prevention of esophageal variceal rebleeding. Hepatology 2008; 48: 5807.
  • 39
    Ahmad I, Khan AA, Alam A, Butt AK, Shafqat F, Sarwar S. Propranolol, isosorbide mononitrate and endoscopic band ligation – alone or in varying combinations for the prevention of esophageal variceal rebleeding. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2009; 19: 2836.
  • 40
    Kumar A, Jha SK, Sharma P, et al. Addition of propranolol and isosorbide mononitrate to endoscopic variceal ligation does not reduce variceal rebleeding incidence. Gastroenterology 2009; 137: 892901.
  • 41
    Lo GH, Chen WC, Chan HH, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of banding ligation plus drug therapy versus drug therapy alone in the prevention of esophageal variceal rebleeding. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009; 24: 9827.
  • 42
    Jha SK, Kumar A, Sharma BC, Sarin SK. Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) plus propranolol (P) and isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) versus EVL alone in secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding: a prospective RCT. Hepatology 2007; 46: 250A.
  • 43
    Dwan K, Altman DG, Arnaiz JA, et al. Systematic review of the empirical evidence of study publication bias and outcome reporting bias. PLoS ONE 2008; 3: e3081.
  • 44
    Bosch J, Berzigotti A, Garcia-Pagan JC, Abraldes JG. The management of portal hypertension: rational basis, available treatments and future options. J Hepatol 2008; 48(Suppl. 1): S6892.
  • 45
    Senzolo M, Cholongitas E, Burra P, et al. Beta-blockers protect against spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients: a meta-analysis. Liver Int 2009; 29: 118993.
  • 46
    Feu F, Garcia-Pagan JC, Bosch J, et al. Relation between portal pressure response to pharmacotherapy and risk of recurrent variceal haemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis. Lancet 1995; 346: 10569.
  • 47
    Garcia-Pagan JC, Feu F, Bosch J, Rodes J. Propranolol compared with propranolol plus isosorbide-5-mononitrate for portal hypertension in cirrhosis. A randomized controlled study. Ann Intern Med 1991; 114: 86973.