Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 32: 1031–1036
Background Coeliac disease is a chronic disease with a various clinical presentation, including anxiety and depression.
Aim To investigate the quality of sleep in coeliac disease.
Methods The participants were coeliacs at diagnosis; coeliacs on a gluten-free diet at follow-up and healthy volunteers. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), SF36, Zung and Fatigue scales and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).
Results The PSQI score was higher in coeliacs at diagnosis and in a gluten-free diet than in healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). A gluten-free diet did not improve the PSQI score (P = 0.245) in coeliac disease. The other test scores were similar between coeliacs at diagnosis and those on a gluten-free diet, whereas significant differences were found between coeliacs and volunteers. PSQI score was inversely associated with the quality of the physical (r = −0.327, P = 0.002) and mental (r = −0.455, P < 0.001) component scores. The sleep quality scores were related to depression (r = 0.633, P < 0.001), fatigue (r = 0.377, P < 0.001), state anxiety (r = 0.484, P < 0.001) and trait anxiety (r = 0.467, P < 0.001).
Conclusions Sleep disorders are common in coeliac disease not only at diagnosis but also during treatment with a gluten-free diet. Sleep disorders are related to depression, anxiety and fatigue, and inversely related to quality of life scale scores.