• 1
    Peyrin-Biroulet L, Loftus EV Jr, Colombel JF, Sandborn WJ. The natural history of adult Crohn’s disease in population-based cohorts. Am J Gastroenterol 2010; 105: 28997.
  • 2
    Chamberlain G, Fox J, Ashton B, Middleton J. Concise review: mesenchymal stem cells: their phenotype, differentiation capacity, immunological features, and potential for homing. Stem Cells 2007; 25: 273949.
  • 3
    Dominici M, Le BK, Mueller I, et al. Minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. The International Society for Cellular Therapy position statement. Cytotherapy 2006; 8: 3157.
  • 4
    Uccelli A, Moretta L, Pistoia V. Mesenchymal stem cells in health and disease. Nat Rev Immunol 2008; 8: 72636.
  • 5
    Pittenger MF, Mackay AM, Beck SC, et al. Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells. Science 1999; 284: 1437.
  • 6
    Dazzi F, Van Laar JM, Cope A, Tyndall A. Cell therapy for autoimmune diseases. Arthritis Res Ther 2007; 9: 206.
  • 7
    Panes J, Salas A. Mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of stem cell therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases. Gut 2009; 58: 898900.
  • 8
    Gonzalez-Rey E, Gonzalez MA, Rico L, Buscher D, Delgado M. Human adult stem cells derived from adipose tissue protect against experimental colitis and sepsis. Gut 2009; 58: 92939.
  • 9
    Devine SM, Cobbs C, Jennings M, Bartholomew A, Hoffman R. Mesenchymal stem cells distribute to a wide range of tissues following systemic infusion into nonhuman primates. Blood 2003; 101: 29993001.
  • 10
    Dwyer RM, Potter-Beirne SM, Harrington KA, et al. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 secreted by primary breast tumors stimulates migration of mesenchymal stem cells. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13: 50207.
  • 11
    Gratwohl A, Passweg J, Bocelli-Tyndall C, et al. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for autoimmune diseases. Bone Marrow Transplant 2005; 35: 86979.
  • 12
    Kapoor S, Wilson AG, Sharrack B, et al. Haemopoietic stem cell transplantation – an evolving treatment for severe autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in rheumatology, neurology and gastroenterology. Hematology 2007; 12: 17991.
  • 13
    Marmont AM. Immunoablation followed or not by hematopoietic stem cells as an intense therapy for severe autoimmune diseases. New perspectives, new problems. Haematologica 2001; 86: 33745.
  • 14
    Nash RA, McSweeney PA, Crofford LJ, et al. High-dose immunosuppressive therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for severe systemic sclerosis: long-term follow-up of the US multicenter pilot study. Blood 2007; 110: 138896.
  • 15
    Burt RK, Marmont A, Oyama Y, et al. Randomized controlled trials of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for autoimmune diseases: the evolution from myeloablative to lymphoablative transplant regimens. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 375060.
  • 16
    Farge D, Labopin M, Tyndall A, et al. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for autoimmune diseases: an observational study on 12 years of experience from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Working Party on Autoimmune Diseases. Haematologica 2010; 95: 28492.
  • 17
    Oyama Y, Barr WG, Statkute L, et al. Autologous non-myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with systemic sclerosis. Bone Marrow Transplant 2007; 40: 54955.
  • 18
    Vonk MC, Marjanovic Z, Van Den Hoogen FH, et al. Long-term follow-up results after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe systemic sclerosis. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67: 98104.
  • 19
    Loh Y, Oyama Y, Statkute L, et al. Development of a secondary autoimmune disorder after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for autoimmune diseases: role of conditioning regimen used. Blood 2007; 109: 26438.
  • 20
    Burt RK, Traynor A, Statkute L, et al. Nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for systemic lupus erythematosus. JAMA 2006; 295: 52735.
  • 21
    Jayne D, Passweg J, Marmont A, et al. Autologous stem cell transplantation for systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2004; 13: 16876.
  • 22
    Rocca MA, Mondria T, Valsasina P, et al. A three-year study of brain atrophy after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in rapidly evolving secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2007; 28: 165961.
  • 23
    Burt RK, Loh Y, Cohen B, et al. Autologous non-myeloablative haemopoietic stem cell transplantation in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase I/II study. Lancet Neurol 2009; 8: 24453.
  • 24
    Veny M, Esteller M, Ricart E, et al. Late Crohn’s disease patients present an increase in peripheral Th17 cells and cytokine production compared with early patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 31: 56172.
  • 25
    Couri CE, Oliveira MC, Stracieri AB, et al. C-peptide levels and insulin independence following autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 2009; 301: 15739.
  • 26
    Burt RK, Oyama Y, Verda L, et al. Induction of remission of severe and refractory rheumatoid arthritis by allogeneic mixed chimerism. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 246670.
  • 27
    Nash RA, McSweeney PA, Nelson JL, et al. Allogeneic marrow transplantation in patients with severe systemic sclerosis: resolution of dermal fibrosis. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 19826.
  • 28
    Verda L, Kim DA, Ikehara S, et al. Hematopoietic mixed chimerism derived from allogeneic embryonic stem cells prevents autoimmune diabetes mellitus in NOD mice. Stem Cells 2008; 26: 3816.
  • 29
    Drakos PE, Nagler A, Or R. Case of Crohn’s disease in bone marrow transplantation. Am J Hematol 1993; 43: 1578.
  • 30
    Lopez-Cubero SO, Sullivan KM, McDonald GB. Course of Crohn’s disease after allogeneic marrow transplantation. Gastroenterology 1998; 114: 43340.
  • 31
    Ditschkowski M, Einsele H, Schwerdtfeger R, et al. Improvement of inflammatory bowel disease after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. Transplantation 2003; 75: 17457.
  • 32
    Talbot DC, Montes A, Teh WL, Nandi A, Powles RL. Remission of Crohn’s disease following allogeneic bone marrow transplant for acute leukaemia. Hosp Med 1998; 59: 5801.
  • 33
    Castro J, Bentch H, Smith L, et al. Prolonged clinical remission in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) after high dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous blood stem cell transplantation. Blood 1996; 88(Supplement): 133A.
  • 34
    Kashyap A, Forman SJ. Autologous bone marrow transplantation for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma resulting in long-term remission of coincidental Crohn’s disease. Br J Haematol 1998; 103: 6512.
  • 35
    Musso M, Porretto F, Crescimanno A, et al. Crohn’s disease complicated by relapsed extranodal Hodgkin’s lymphoma: prolonged complete remission after unmanipulated PBPC autotransplant. Bone Marrow Transplant 2000; 26: 9213.
  • 36
    Soderholm JD, Malm C, Juliusson G, Sjodahl R. Long-term endoscopic remission of crohn disease after autologous stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia. Scand J Gastroenterol 2002; 37: 6136.
  • 37
    Anumakonda V, Hayee B, Chung-Faye G. Remission and relapse of Crohn’s disease following autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Gut 2007; 56: 1325.
  • 38
    Marti JL, Mayordomo JI, Isla MD, et al. PBSC autotransplant for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): a case of ulcerative colitis. Bone Marrow Transplant 2001; 28: 10910.
  • 39
    Sonwalkar SA, James RM, Ahmad T, et al. Fulminant Crohn’s colitis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Gut 2003; 52: 151821.
  • 40
    Craig RM, Traynor A, Oyama Y, Burt RK. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe Crohn’s disease. Bone Marrow Transplant 2003; 32(Suppl 1): S579.
  • 41
    Oyama Y, Craig RM, Traynor AE, et al. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with refractory Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology 2005; 128: 55263.
  • 42
    Cassinotti A, Annaloro C, Ardizzone S, et al. Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation without CD34+ cell selection in refractory Crohn’s disease. Gut 2008; 57: 2117.
  • 43
    Scime R, Cavallaro AM, Tringali S, et al. Complete clinical remission after high-dose immune suppression and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in severe Crohn’s disease refractory to immunosuppressive and immunomodulator therapy. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2004; 10: 8924.
  • 44
    Kreisel W, Potthoff K, Bertz H, et al. Complete remission of Crohn’s disease after high-dose cyclophosphamide and autologous stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 2003; 32: 33740.
  • 45
    Glocker EO, Kotlarz D, Boztug K, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease and mutations affecting the interleukin-10 receptor. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 203345.
  • 46
    Fang B, Song YP, Liao LM, Han Q, Zhao RC. Treatment of severe therapy-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease with human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Bone Marrow Transplant 2006; 38: 38990.
  • 47
    Bartholomew A, Sturgeon C, Siatskas M, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells suppress lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and prolong skin graft survival in vivo. Exp Hematol 2002; 30: 428.
  • 48
    Ortiz LA, Gambelli F, McBride C, et al. Mesenchymal stem cell engraftment in lung is enhanced in response to bleomycin exposure and ameliorates its fibrotic effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003; 100: 840711.
  • 49
    Fang B, Shi M, Liao L, et al. Systemic infusion of FLK1(+) mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in mice. Transplantation 2004; 78: 838.
  • 50
    Togel F, Weiss K, Yang Y, et al. Vasculotropic, paracrine actions of infused mesenchymal stem cells are important to the recovery from acute kidney injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2007; 292: F162635.
  • 51
    Zappia E, Casazza S, Pedemonte E, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis inducing T-cell anergy. Blood 2005; 106: 175561.
  • 52
    Urban VS, Kiss J, Kovacs J, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells cooperate with bone marrow cells in therapy of diabetes. Stem Cells 2008; 26: 24453.
  • 53
    Gonzalez MA, Gonzalez-Rey E, Rico L, Buscher D, Delgado M. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells alleviate experimental colitis by inhibiting inflammatory and autoimmune responses. Gastroenterology 2009; 136: 97889.
  • 54
    Koc ON, Day J, Nieder M, et al. Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell infusion for treatment of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) and Hurler syndrome (MPS-IH). Bone Marrow Transplant 2002; 30: 21522.
  • 55
    Horwitz EM, Gordon PL, Koo WK, et al. Isolated allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells engraft and stimulate growth in children with osteogenesis imperfecta: implications for cell therapy of bone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002; 99: 89327.
  • 56
    Le Blanc K, Frassoni F, Ball L, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of steroid-resistant, severe, acute graft-versus-host disease: a phase II study. Lancet 2008; 371: 157986.
  • 57
    Le Blanc K, Rasmusson I, Sundberg B, et al. Treatment of severe acute graft-versus-host disease with third party haploidentical mesenchymal stem cells. Lancet 2004; 363: 143941.
  • 58
    Larghero J, Farge D, Braccini A, et al. Phenotypical and functional characteristics of in vitro expanded bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from patients with systemic sclerosis. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67: 4439.
  • 59
    Garcia-Olmo D, Garcia-Arranz M, Herreros D, et al. A phase I clinical trial of the treatment of Crohn’s fistula by adipose mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Dis Colon Rectum 2005; 48: 141623.
  • 60
    Garcia-Olmo D, Herreros D, Pascual I, et al. Expanded adipose-derived stem cells for the treatment of complex perianal fistula: a phase II clinical trial. Dis Colon Rectum 2009; 52: 7986.
  • 61
    Onken JE, Gallup D, Hanson J, et al. Successful outpatient treatment of refractory Crohn’s disease using adult mesenchymal stem cells. ACG 2006 Final Program Book 2006: 121.
  • 62
    Duijvestein M, Wildenberg ME, Vos ACW, et al. Phase I results of intravenous autologous bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cell treatment in refractory Crohn’s disease. J Crohn’s & Colitis 2010; 4: S6.