• 1
    Tack J, Talley NJ, Camilleri M, et al. Functional gastroduodenal disorders. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 146679.
  • 2
    Van Oudenhove L, Aziz Q. Recent insights on central processing and psychological processes in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Dig Liver Dis 2009; 41: 7817.
  • 3
    Drossman DA. The functional gastrointestinal disorders and the Rome III process. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 137790.
  • 4
    Haag S, Senf W, Tagay S, et al. Is there any association between disturbed gastrointestinal visceromotor and sensory function and impaired quality of life in functional dyspepsia? Neurogastroenterol Motil 2010; 22: 26279.
  • 5
    Chang L. Review article: epidemiology and quality of life in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 20: 319.
  • 6
    El-Serag HB, Talley NJ. Health-related quality of life in functional dyspepsia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 18: 38793.
  • 7
    Talley NJ, Locke GR III, Lahr BD, et al. Functional dyspepsia, delayed gastric emptying, and impaired quality of life. Gut 2006; 55: 9339.
  • 8
    Biggs A-M, Aziz Q, Tomenson B, Creed F. Effect of childhood adversity on health related quality of life in patients with upper abdominal or chest pain. Gut 2004; 53: 1806.
  • 9
    Monés J, Adan A, Segú JL, López JS, Artés M, Guerrero T. Quality of life in functional dyspepsia. Dig Dis Sci 2002; 47: 206.
  • 10
    Jones MP, Sharp LK, Crowell MD. Psychosocial correlates of symptoms in functional dyspepsia. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005; 3: 5218.
  • 11
    Haag S, Senf W, Häuser W, et al. Impairment of health-related quality of life in functional dyspepsia and chronic liver disease: the influence of depression and anxiety. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 27: 56171.
  • 12
    Fischler B, Tack J, De Gucht V, et al. Heterogeneity of symptom pattern, psychosocial factors, and pathophysiological mechanisms in severe functional dyspepsia. Gastroenterology 2003; 124: 90310.
  • 13
    Welén K, Faresjö Å, Faresjö T. Functional dyspepsia affects women more than men in daily life: a case-control study in primary care. Gend Med 2008; 5: 6273.
  • 14
    Gutierrez Aa, Rodrigo Lb, Riestra Sc, et al. Quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia: a prospective 1-year follow-up study in Spanish patients. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003; 15: 117581.
  • 15
    Van Oudenhove L, Vandenberghe J, Geeraerts B, et al. Relationship between anxiety and gastric sensorimotor function in functional dyspepsia. Psychosom Med 2007; 69: 45563.
  • 16
    Van Oudenhove L, Vandenberghe J, Geeraerts B, et al. Determinants of symptoms in functional dyspepsia: gastric sensorimotor function, psychosocial factors or somatization? Gut 2008; 57: 166673.
  • 17
    Ghoos YF, Maes BD, Geypens BJ, et al. Measurement of gastric emptying rate of solids by means of a carbon-labeled octanoic acid breath test. Gastroenterology 1993; 104: 16407.
  • 18
    Tack J, Caenepeel P, Fischler B, Piessevaux H, Janssens J. Symptoms associated with hypersensitivity to gastric distention in functional dyspepsia. Gastroenterology 2001; 121: 52635.
  • 19
    Sarnelli G, Vos R, Cuomo R, Janssens J, Tack J. Reproducibility of gastric barostat studies in healthy controls and in dyspeptic patients. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 104753.
    Direct Link:
  • 20
    Leserman J, Drossman DA, Li Z. The reliability and validity of a sexual and physical abuse history questionnaire in female patients with gastrointestinal disorders. Behav Med 1995; 21: 14150.
  • 21
    De Gucht V, Heiser W. Alexithymia and somatisation: a quantitative review of the literature. J Psychosom Res 2003; 54: 42534.
  • 22
    Taylor GJ, Bagby RM, Parker JDA. The 20-item Toronto alexithymia scale: IV. Reliability and factorial validity in different languages and cultures. J Psychosom Res 2003; 55: 27783.
  • 23
    Spielberger C, Gorsuch R, Lushene R, Vagg P, Jacobs G. Manual for the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y Self-Evaluation Questionnaire). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1983.
  • 24
    Van der Ploeg H. Handleiding bij de Zelf-Beoordelings Vragenlijst [Manual for the Dutch adaptation of the STAI-Y], 2nd edn. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger, 2000.
  • 25
    Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW. The PHQ-9. Validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Int Med 2001; 16: 60613.
  • 26
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
  • 27
    Lowe B, Grafe K, Zipfel S, et al. Detecting panic disorder in medical and psychosomatic outpatients: comparative validation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire, a screening question, and physicians’ diagnosis. J Psychosom Res 2003; 55: 5159.
  • 28
    Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, the Patient Health Questionnaire Primary Care Study Group. Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: the PHQ primary care study. JAMA 1999; 282: 173744.
  • 29
    Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS Scales. J Pers Soc Psychol 1988; 54: 106370.
  • 30
    Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW. The PHQ-15: validity of a new measure for evaluating the severity of somatic symptoms. Psychosom Med 2002; 64: 25866.
  • 31
    De Gucht V, Fischler B. Somatization: a critical review of conceptual and methodological issues. Psychosomatics 2002; 43: 19.
  • 32
    Lipowski ZJ. Somatization: the concept and its clinical application. Am J Psychiatry 1988; 145: 135868.
  • 33
    Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, DeGruy FV III, Swindle R. A symptom checklist to screen for somatoform disorders in primary care. Psychosomatics 1998; 39: 26372.
  • 34
    Creed F. Can DSM-V facilitate productive research into the somatoform disorders? J Psychosom Res 2006; 60: 3314.
  • 35
    Kroenke K. Physical symptom disorder: a simpler diagnostic category for somatization-spectrum conditions. J Psychosom Res 2006; 60: 3359.
  • 36
    Mayou R, Kirmayer LJ, Simon G, Kroenke K, Sharpe M. Somatoform disorders: time for a new approach in DSM-V. Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162: 84755.
  • 37
    Barsky AJ, Orav EJ, Bates DW. Somatization increases medical utilization and costs independent of psychiatric and medical comorbidity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 90310.
  • 38
    Cuomo R, Sarnelli G, Grasso R, et al. Functional dyspepsia symptoms, gastric emptying and satiety provocative test: analysis of relationships. Scand J Gastroenterol 2001; 36: 10306.
  • 39
    Ware JE Jr, Kosinski M. SF-36 Physical & Mental Health Summary Scales: A Manual for Users of Version 1, 2nd edn. Lincoln, RI: QualiMetric Incorporated, 2001.
  • 40
    Aaronson NK, Muller M, Cohen PDA, et al. Translation, validation, and norming of the Dutch Language Version of the SF-36 Health Survey in Community and Chronic Disease Populations. J Clin Epidemiol 1998; 51: 105568.
  • 41
    Ware JE Jr, Gandek B, Kosinski M, et al. The equivalence of SF-36 summary health scores estimated using standard and country-specific algorithms in 10 countries: results from the IQOLA Project. J Clin Epidemiol 1998; 51: 116770.
  • 42
    Chen L, Murad M, Paras M, et al. Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clin Proc 2010; 85: 61829.
  • 43
    Paras ML, Murad MH, Chen LP, et al. Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of somatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2009; 302: 55061.
  • 44
    Rademaker AR, Vermetten E, Geuze E, Muilwijk A, Kleber RJ. Self-reported early trauma as a predictor of adult personality: a study in a military sample. J Clin Psychol 2008; 64: 86375.
  • 45
    Janssens KAM, Rosmalen JGM, Ormel J, Oort FVAv, Oldehinkel AJ. Anxiety and depression are risk factors rather than consequences of functional somatic symptoms in a general population of adolescents: the TRAILS study. J Child Psychol Psychiatr 2010; 51: 30412.
  • 46
    Sykes MA, Blanchard EB, Lackner J, Keefer L, Krasner S. Psychopathology in irritable bowel syndrome: support for a psychophysiological model. J Behav Med 2003; 26: 36172.
  • 47
    Baron RM, Kenny DA. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. J Pers Soc Psychol 1986; 51: 117382.
  • 48
    Kraemer HC, Stice E, Kazdin A, Offord D, Kupfer D. How do risk factors work together? Mediators, moderators, and independent, overlapping, and proxy risk factors. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 84856.
  • 49
    Haag S, Senf W, Tagay S, et al. Is there a benefit from intensified medical and psychological interventions in patients with functional dyspepsia not responding to conventional therapy? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 25: 97386.
  • 50
    Wiklund I, Glise H, Jerndal P, Carlsson J, Talley NJ. Does endoscopy have a positive impact on quality of life in dyspepsia? Gastrointest Endosc 1998; 47: 44954.
  • 51
    Brun-Strang Ca, Dapoigny Mb, Lafuma Ac, Wainsten JPd, Fagnani Fc. Irritable bowel syndrome in France: quality of life, medical management, and costs: the Encoli study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 19: 1097103.
  • 52
    Jones MP, Bratten J, Keefer L. Quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome differs between subjects recruited from clinic or the internet. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102: 22327.
    Direct Link:
  • 53
    Ten Berg MJ, Goettsch WG, Van Den Boom G, Smout AJPM, Herings RMC. Quality of life of patients with irritable bowel syndrome is low compared to others with chronic diseases. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 18: 47581.
  • 54
    Dean BB, Aguilar D, Barghout V, et al. Impairment in work productivity and health-related quality of life in patients with IBS. Am J Manag Care 2005; 1(Suppl.): S1726.
  • 55
    Whitehead WE, Palsson OS, Levy RR, Feld AD, Turner M, Von Korff M. Comorbidity in irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102: 276776.
    Direct Link:
  • 56
    Creed F, Tomenson B, Guthrie E, et al. The relationship between somatisation and outcome in patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome. J Psychosom Res 2008; 64: 61320.
  • 57
    De Gucht V, Maes S. Explaining medically unexplained symptoms: toward a multidimensional, theory-based approach to somatization. J Psychosom Res 2006; 60: 34952.
  • 58
    Naliboff BD. Towards a Nondualistic Approach to Multisystem Illness. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102: 277780.
    Direct Link:
  • 59
    Anand P, Aziz Q, Willert R, Van Oudenhove L. Peripheral and central mechanisms of visceral sensitization in man. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2007; 19(Suppl. 1): 2946.
  • 60
    Leserman J, Drossman DA. Relationship of abuse history to functional gastrointestinal disorders and symptoms: some possible mediating mechanisms. Trauma Violence Abuse 2007; 8: 33143.
  • 61
    Van Oudenhove L, Vandenberghe J, Dupont P, et al. Regional brain activity in functional dyspepsia: a H215O-PET study on the role of gastric sensitivity & abuse history. Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 3647.
  • 62
    Strigo IA, Simmons AN, Matthews SC, Craig AD, Paulus MP. Association of major depressive disorder with altered functional brain response during anticipation and processing of heat pain. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008; 65: 127584.
  • 63
    De Gucht V, Fischler B, Heiser W. Neuroticism, alexithymia, negative affect, and positive affect as determinants of medically unexplained symptoms. Pers Indiv Differ 2004; 36: 165567.
  • 64
    Porcelli P, Taylor GJ, Bagby RM, De Carne M. Alexithymia and functional gastrointestinal disorders. Psychother Psychosom 1999; 68: 2639.
  • 65
    Zautra AJ. Emotions, Stress & Health. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • 66
    Aaron LA, Buchwald D. A review of the evidence for overlap among unexplained clinical conditions. Ann Int Med 2001; 134: 868.
  • 67
    Van Oudenhove L, Geeraerts B, Tack J. Limitations of current paradigms for visceral sensitivity testing. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2008; 20: 958.
  • 68
    Raphael KG. Childhood abuse and pain in adulthood: more than a modest relationship? Clin J Pain 2005; 21: 3713.
  • 69
    Salmon P, Skaife K, Rhodes J. Abuse, dissociation, and somatization in irritable bowel syndrome: towards an explanatory model. J Behav Med 2003; 26: 118.
  • 70
    Conrad R, Wegener I, Imbierowicz K, Liedtke R, Geiser F. Alexithymia, temperament and character as predictors of psychopathology in patients with major depression. Psychiatry Res 2009; 2: 13744.