SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Rikkers L, Jenko P, Rudman D, Freides D. Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy: detection, prevalence, and relationship to nitrogen metabolism. Gastroenterology 1978; 75: 4629.
  • 2
    Wein C, Koch H, Popp B, Oehler G, Schauder P. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy impairs fitness to drive. Hepatology 2004; 39: 73945.
  • 3
    Bajaj JS, Saeian K, Schubert CM, et al. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is associated with motor vehicle crashes: the reality beyond the driving test. Hepatology 2009; 50: 117583.
  • 4
    Dhiman RK, Chawla YK. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy: time to recognise and treat. Trop Gastroenterol 2008; 29: 612.
  • 5
    Amodio P. Health related quality of life and minimal hepatic encephalopathy. It is time to insert ‘quality’ in health care. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009; 24: 32930.
  • 6
    Bajaj JS. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy matters in daily life. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 360915.
  • 7
    Bajaj JS, Hafeezullah M, Zadvornova Y, et al. The effect of fatigue on driving skills in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Am J Gastroenterol 2009; 104: 898905.
  • 8
    Groeneweg M, Quero JC, De Bruijn I, et al. Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy impairs daily functioning. Hepatology 1998; 28: 459.
  • 9
    Schomerus H, Hamster W. Quality of life in cirrhotics with minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Metab Brain Dis 2001; 16: 3741.
  • 10
    Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 1995; 125: 140112.
  • 11
    Fuller R. Probiotics in man and animals. J Appl Bacteriol 1989; 66: 36578.
  • 12
    Moher D, Cook DJ, Eastwood S, Olkin I, Rennie D, Stroup DF. Improving the quality of reports of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials: the QUOROM statement. Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses. Lancet 1999; 354: 1896900.
  • 13
    Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D, et al. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials 1996; 17: 112.
  • 14
    Deeks JJ, Higgins J, Altman DG. Analyzing data and undertaking meta-analyses. In: HigginsJ, GreenS, eds. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.0.1. Oxford, UK: The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008; (chap 9): p. 278.
  • 15
    Liu Q, Duan ZP, Ha DK, Bengmark S, Kurtovic J, Riordan SM. Synbiotic modulation of gut flora: effect on minimal hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology 2004; 39: 14419.
  • 16
    Malaguarnera M, Greco F, Barone G, Gargante MP, Toscano MA. Bifidobacterium longum with fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) treatment in minimal hepatic encephalopathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Dig Dis Sci 2007; 52: 325965.
  • 17
    Bajaj JS, Saeian K, Christensen KM, et al. Probiotic yogurt for the treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Am J Gastroenterol 2008; 103: 170715.
    Direct Link:
  • 18
    Lata J, Jurankova J, Pribramska V, et al. Effect of administration of Escherichia coli Nissle (Mutaflor) on intestinal colonisation, endo-toxemia, liver function and minimal hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis. Vnitr Lek 2006; 52: 2159.
  • 19
    Horsmans Y, Solbreux PM, Daenens C, Desager JP, Geubel AP. Lactulose improves psychometric testing in cirrhotic patients with subclinical encephalopathy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1997; 11: 16570.
  • 20
    Watanabe A, Sakai T, Sato S, et al. Clinical efficacy of lactulose in cirrhotic patients with and without subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. Hepatology 1997; 26: 14104.
  • 21
    Prasad S, Dhiman RK, Duseja A, Chawla YK, Sharma A, Agarwal R. Lactulose improves cognitive functions and health-related quality of life in patients with cirrhosis who have minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Hepatology 2007; 45: 54959.
  • 22
    Dhiman RK, Sawhney MS, Chawla YK, Das G, Ram S, Dilawari JB. Efficacy of lactulose in cirrhotic patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. Dig Dis Sci 2000; 45: 154952.
  • 23
    Zeng Z, Li YY. Effects of lactulose treatment on the course of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2003; 83: 11269.
  • 24
    Mas A, Rodes J, Sunyer L, et al. Comparison of rifaximin and lactitol in the treatment of acute hepatic encephalopathy: results of a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, controlled clinical trial. J Hepatol 2003; 38: 518.
  • 25
    Loguercio C, Federico A, De Girolamo V, Ferrieri A, Del Vecchio Blanco C. Cyclic treatment of chronic hepatic encephalopathy with rifaximin. Results of a double-blind clinical study. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 2003; 49: 5362.
  • 26
    Salerno F, Moser P, Maggi A, Vitaliani G, Benetti G. Effects of long-term administration of low-dose lactitol in patients with cirrhosis but without overt encephalopathy. J Hepatol 1994; 21: 10926.
  • 27
    Heredia D, Teres J, Orteu N, Rodes J. Lactitol vs. lactulose in the treatment of chronic recurrent portal-systemic encephalopathy. J Hepatol 1988; 7: 10610.
  • 28
    Morgan MY, Hawley KE, Stambuk D. Lactitol versus lactulose in the treatment of chronic hepatic encephalopathy. A double-blind, randomised, cross-over study. J Hepatol 1987; 4: 23644.
  • 29
    Riggio O, Balducci G, Ariosto F, et al. Lactitol in the treatment of chronic hepatic encephalopathy – a randomized cross-over comparison with lactulose. Hepatogastroenterology 1990; 37: 5247.
  • 30
    Pai CH, Huang YS, Jeng WC, Chan CY, Lee SD. Treatment of porto-systemic encephalopathy with lactitol verus lactulose: a randomized controlled study. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei) 1995; 55: 316.
  • 31
    Morgan MY, Alonso M, Stanger LC. Lactitol and lactulose for the treatment of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients. A randomised, cross-over study. J Hepatol 1989; 8: 20817.
  • 32
    McClain CJ, Potter TJ, Kromhout JP, Zieve L. The effect of lactulose on psychomotor performance tests in alcoholic cirrhotics without overt hepatic encephalopathy. J Clin Gastroenterol 1984; 6: 3259.
  • 33
    Sharma BC, Sharma P, Agrawal A, Sarin SK. Secondary prophylaxis of hepatic encephalopathy: an open-label randomized controlled trial of lactulose versus placebo. Gastroenterology 2009; 137: 88591, e1.
  • 34
    Malaguarnera M, Gargante MP, Malaguarnera G, et al. Bifidobacterium combined with fructo-oligosaccharide versus lactulose in the treatment of patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 22: 199206.
  • 35
    Sharma P, Sharma BC, Sarin SK. Predictors of nonresponse to lactulose for minimal hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. Liver Int 2009; 29: 136571.
  • 36
    Gentile S, Guarino G, Romano M, et al. A randomized controlled trial of acarbose in hepatic encephalopathy. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005; 3: 18491.
  • 37
    Romero-Gomez M, Boza F, Garcia-Valdecasas MS, Garcia E, Aguilar-Reina J. Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy predicts the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 271823.
  • 38
    Das A, Dhiman RK, Saraswat VA, Verma M, Naik SR. Prevalence and natural history of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001; 16: 5315.
  • 39
    Riordan SM, Williams R. Gut flora and hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 11402.
  • 40
    Riordan SM, Skinner NA, McIver CJ, et al. Synbiotic-associated improvement in liver function in cirrhotic patients: relation to changes in circulating cytokine messenger RNA and protein levels. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 2007; 19: 716.
  • 41
    Heilpern D, Szilagyi A. Manipulation of intestinal microbial flora for therapeutic benefit in inflammatory bowel diseases: review of clinical trials of probiotics, pre-biotics and synbiotics. Rev Recent Clin Trials 2008; 3: 16784.
  • 42
    Hoveyda N, Heneghan C, Mahtani KR, Perera R, Roberts N, Glasziou P. A systematic review and meta-analysis: probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. BMC Gastroenterol 2009; 9: 15.
  • 43
    McFarland LV, Dublin S. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 265061.
  • 44
    D’Souza AL, Rajkumar C, Cooke J, Bulpitt CJ. Probiotics in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea: meta-analysis. BMJ 2002; 324: 1361.
  • 45
    Elia M, Engfer MB, Green CJ, Silk DB. Systematic review and meta-analysis: the clinical and physiological effects of fibre-containing enteral formulae. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 27: 12045.
  • 46
    Randolph C, Hilsabeck R, Kato A, et al. Neuropsychological assessment of hepatic encephalopathy: ISHEN practice guidelines. Liver Int 2009; 29: 62935.