• 1
    Pare P, Ferrazzi S, Thompson WG, Irvine EJ, Rance L. An epidemiological survey of constipation in Canada: definitions, rates, demographics, and predictors of health care seeking. Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 31307.
    Direct Link:
  • 2
    Peppas G, Alexiou VG, Mourtzoukou E, Falagas ME. Epidemiology of constipation in Europe and Oceania: a systematic review. BMC Gastroenterol 2008; 8: 5.
  • 3
    Garrigues V, Galvez C, Ortiz V, Ponce M, Nos P, Ponce J. Prevalence of constipation: agreement among several criteria and evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of qualifying symptoms and self-reported definition in a population-based survey in Spain. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 159: 5206.
  • 4
    Johanson JF, Kralstein J. Chronic constipation: a survey of the patient perspective. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 25: 599608.
  • 5
    Lembo A, Camilleri M. Chronic constipation. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 13608.
  • 6
    Choung RS, Branda ME, Chitkara D, et al. Longitudinal direct medical costs associated with constipation in women. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011; 33: 25160.
  • 7
    Lu CL, Chang FY, Chen CY, Luo JC, Lee SD. Significance of Rome II-defined functional constipation in Taiwan and comparison with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006; 24: 42938.
  • 8
    Walter S, Hallböök O, Gotthard R, Bergmark M, Sjodahl R. A population-based study on bowel habits in a Swedish community: prevalence of faecal incontinence and constipation. Scand J Gastroenterol 2002; 37: 9116.
  • 9
    Drossman DA, Li Z, Andruzzi E, et al. U.S. householder survey of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Prevalence, sociodemography, and health impact. Dig Dis Sci 1993; 38: 156980.
  • 10
    Jun DW, Park HY, Lee OY, et al. A population-based study on bowel habits in a Korean community: prevalence of functional constipation and self-reported constipation. Dig Dis Sci 2006; 51: 14717.
  • 11
    Yan X, Wang R, Zhao Y, et al. Systematic investigation of gastrointestinal diseases in China (SILC): validation of survey methodology. BMC Gastroenterol 2009; 9: 86.
  • 12
    Cao Y, Yan X, Ma XQ, et al. Validation of a survey methodology for gastroesophageal reflux disease in China. BMC Gastroenterol 2008; 8: 37.
  • 13
    Kwan AC, Bao TN, Chakkaphak S, et al. Validation of Rome II criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders by factor analysis of symptoms in Asian patient sample. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003; 18: 796802.
  • 14
    Talley NJ, Stanghellini V, Heading RC, Koch KL, Malagelada JR, Tytgat GN. Functional gastroduodenal disorders. Gut 1999; 45(Suppl. 2): II3742.
  • 15
    Zhao Y, Zou D, Wang R, et al. Dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome in China: a population-based endoscopy study of prevalence and impact. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 32: 56272.
  • 16
    Ware JE Jr, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care 1992; 30: 47383.
  • 17
    Johns MW. A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth sleepiness scale. Sleep 1991; 14: 5405.
  • 18
    Higgins PD, Johanson JF. Epidemiology of constipation in North America: a systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99: 7509.
  • 19
    Chen GD, Hu SW, Chen YC, Lin TL, Lin LY. Prevalence and correlations of anal incontinence and constipation in Taiwanese women. Neurourol Urodyn 2003; 22: 6649.
  • 20
    Wong ML, Wee S, Pin CH, Gan GL, Ye H. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with constipation in an elderly Asian community. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 128391.
    Direct Link:
  • 21
    Murakami K, Sasaki S, Okubo H, et al. Association between dietary fiber, water and magnesium intake and functional constipation among young Japanese women. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007; 61: 61622.
  • 22
    Kim HJ, Won CW, Choi HR, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of functional constipation in the elderly. J Korean Acad Fam Med 2006; 27: 6938.
  • 23
    Murakami K, Sasakii S, Okubo H, Takahashi Y, Hoso Y, Itabashi M. Food intake and functional constipation: a cross-sectional study of 3,835 Japanese women aged 18-20 years. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2007; 53: 306.
  • 24
    Kaboli S, Pourhoseingholi M, Moghimi-Dehkordi B, et al. Factors associated with functional constipation in Iranian adults: a population-based study. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2010; 3: 8390.
  • 25
    Wald A, Mueller-Lissner S, Kamm MA, et al. Survey of laxative use by adults with self-defined constipation in South America and Asia: a comparison of six countries. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 31: 27484.
  • 26
    Harari D, Gurwitz JH, Avorn J, Bohn R, Minaker KL. Bowel habit in relation to age and gender. Findings from the National Health Interview Survey and clinical implications. Arch Intern Med 1996; 156: 31520.
  • 27
    McCrea GL, Miaskowski C, Stotts NA, Macera L, Paul SM, Varma MG. Gender differences in self-reported constipation characteristics, symptoms, and bowel and dietary habits among patients attending a specialty clinic for constipation. Gend Med 2009; 6: 25971.
  • 28
    McCrea GL, Miaskowski C, Stotts NA, Macera L, Varma MG. A review of the literature on gender and age differences in the prevalence and characteristics of constipation in North America. J Pain Symptom Manage 2009; 37: 73745.
  • 29
    Teff KL, Alavi A, Chen J, Pourdehnad M, Townsend RR. Muscarinic blockade inhibits gastric emptying of mixed-nutrient meal: effects of weight and gender. Am J Physiol 1999; 276(3 Pt 2): R70714.
  • 30
    Camilleri M, Lee JS, Viramontes B, Bharucha AE, Tangalos EG. Insights into the pathophysiology and mechanisms of constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and diverticulosis in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000; 48: 114250.
  • 31
    Talley NJ, Quan C, Jones MP, Horowitz M. Association of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract symptoms with body mass index in an Australian cohort. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2004; 16: 4139.
  • 32
    Sadik R, Bjornsson E, Simren M. The relationship between symptoms, body mass index, gastrointestinal transit and stool frequency in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 22: 1028.
  • 33
    Camilleri M, Carlson P, McKinzie S, et al. Genetic variation in endocannabinoid metabolism, gastrointestinal motility, and sensation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2008; 294: G139.
  • 34
    Morais MB, Maffei HV. Constipation. J Pediatr (Rio J) 2000; 76(Suppl. 1): S14756.
  • 35
    Jansson C, Nordenstedt H, Wallander MA, et al. Severe symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are associated with cardiovascular disease and other gastrointestinal symptoms, but not diabetes: a population-based study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 27: 5865.
  • 36
    Miyamoto M, Haruma K, Kuwabara M, Nagano M, Okamoto T, Tanaka M. High incidence of newly-developed gastroesophageal reflux disease in the Japanese community: a 6-year follow-up study. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 23: 3937.
  • 37
    Agrawal A, Houghton LA, Lea R, Morris J, Reilly B, Whorwell PJ. Bloating and distention in irritable bowel syndrome: the role of visceral sensation. Gastroenterology 2008; 134: 18829.
  • 38
    Talley NJ. Differentiating functional constipation from constipation- predominant irritable bowel syndrome: management implications. Rev Gastroenterol Disord 2005; 5: 19.
  • 39
    Irvine EJ, Ferrazzi S, Pare P, Thompson WG, Rance L. Health-related quality of life in functional GI disorders: focus on constipation and resource utilization. Am J Gastroenterol 2002; 97: 198693.
    Direct Link:
  • 40
    Belsey J, Greenfield S, Candy D, Geraint M. Systematic review: impact of constipation on quality of life in adults and children. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 31: 93849.