SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    McKibben L, Horan T, Tokars JI, et al. Guidance on public reporting of healthcare-associated infections: recommendations of the healthcare infection control practices advisory committee. Am J for Infect Control 2005; 33: 21726.
  • 2
    McFarland LV, Beneda HW, Clarridge JE, Raugi GJ. Implications of the changing face of Clostridium difficile disease for health care practitioners. Am J Infect Control 2007; 35: 23753.
  • 3
    Carter GP, Rood JI, Lyras D. The role of toxin A and toxin B in Clostridium difficile-associated disease: Past and present perspectives. Gut Microbes 2010; 1: 5864.
  • 4
    Kelly CP, Lamont JT. Clostridium difficile - more difficult than ever. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 193240.
  • 5
    Gravel D, Gardam M, Taylor G, et al. Infection control practices related to Clostridium difficile infection in acute care hospitals in Canada. AJIC 2009; 37: 914.
  • 6
    Hookman P, Barkin JS. Clostridium difficile associated infection, diarrhea and colitis. World J Gastroenterol 2009; 15: 155480.
  • 7
    Gravel D, Miller M, Clostridium difficile Surveillance Working Group. Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhea in Acute-Care Hospitals Participating in CHISP: November 1, 2004 to April 30, 2005. Montreal PQ: Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP.PCSIN), 2007.
  • 8
    Pepin J, Valiquette L, Cossette B. Mortality attributable to nosocomial Clostridium difficile-associated disease during an epidemic caused by a hypervirulent strain in Quebec. CMAJ 2005; 173: 16.
  • 9
    Elixhauser A, Jhung M. Clostridium Dillicile-Associated Disease in U.S. Hospitals, 1993-2005. Rockville MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), 2008.
  • 10
    Poutanen SM, Simor AE. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults. CMAJ 2004; 171: 518.
  • 11
    Owens Jr RC, Donskey CJ, Gaynes RP, Loo VG, Muto CA. Antimicrobial-associated risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46(Suppl 1): S1931.
  • 12
    Loo VG, Poirier L, Miller MA, et al. A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile - associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality. N Eng J Med 2005; 353: 244250.
  • 13
    Rodemann JF, Dubberke ER, Reske KA, Seo DH, Stone CD. Incidence of Clostridium difficule infection in inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol and Hepatol 2007; 5: 33944.
  • 14
    Health Canada. C. difficile (Clostridium difficile). Available at: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/iyh-vsv/diseases-maladies/cdifficile-eng.php. Accessed September 2, 2010.
  • 15
    Public Health Agency of Canada. Fact sheet - Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). Available at: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/id-mi/cdiff-eng.php. Accessed January 13, 2010.
  • 16
    Calfee DP. Clostridium difficile: a reemerging pathogen. Geriatrics 2008; 63: 1014, 21.
  • 17
    Lamont JT. Clostridium difficile colitis. European Surgery - Acta Chirurgica Austriaca 2004; 36: 1615.
  • 18
    Bakken JS. Fecal bacteriotherapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Anaerobe 2009; 15: 2859.
  • 19
    McFee RB, Abdelsayed GG. Clostridium difficile. Dis Mon 2009; 55: 43970.
  • 20
    Brandt LJ, Borody TJ, Campbell J. Endoscopic fecal microbiota transplantation: “first-line” treatment for severe Clostridium difficile infection? J Clin Gastroenterol 2011; 45: 6557.
  • 21
    Cocanour CS. Best strategies in recurrent or persistent Clostridium difficile infection. Surgical Infections 2011; 12: 2359.
  • 22
    Bartlett JG. Clostridium difficile: progress and challenges. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2010; 1213: 629.
  • 23
    KuoLee R, Chen W. Non-antibiotic strategies for the prevention/treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents 2008; 18: 1395403.
  • 24
    Bauer MP, van Dissel JT. Alternative strategies for Clostridium difficile infection. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2009; 33(Suppl 1): S516.
  • 25
    Bauer MP, Kuijper EJ, van Dissel JT. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID): treatment guidance document for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Clin Microbiol Infect 2009; 15: 106779.
  • 26
    Bartlett JG. Narrative review: the new epidemic of clostridium difficile - associated Enteric disease. Ann Intern Med 2006; 145: 75864.
  • 27
    Johnson S. Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: a review of risk factors, treatments, and outcomes. J Infect 2009; 58: 40310.
  • 28
    Leffler DA, Lamont JT. Treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Gastroenterology 2009; 136: 1899912.
  • 29
    Monaghan T, Boswell T, Mahida YR. Recent advances in Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Postgrad Med J 2009; 85: 15262.
  • 30
    van Nispen tot Pannerden CM, Verbon A, Kuipers EJ. Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. What are the Treatment Options? Drugs 2011; 71: 85368.
  • 31
    Macconnachie AA, Fox R, Kennedy DR, Seaton RA. Faecal transplant for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a UK case series. QJM 2009; 102: 7814.
  • 32
    Surawicz CM. Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 1: 328.
  • 33
    Surawicz CM, Alexander J. Treatment of refractory and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2011; 8: 3309.
  • 34
    Borody TJ, Warren EF, Leis SM, Surace R, Ashman O, Siarakas S. Bacteriotherapy using fecal flora: toying with human motions. J Clin Gastroenterol 2004; 38: 47583.
  • 35
    Landy J, Al-Hassi HO, McLaughlin SD, et al. Review article: faecal transplantation therapy for gastrointestinal disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011; 34: 40915.
  • 36
    Guo B, Nguyen T, Ohinmaa A, Harstall C. Fecal transplantation for the treatment of Clostridium difficule-associated disease or ulcerative colitis. Edmonton AB: Institute of Health Economics, 2011.
  • 37
    Cook DJ, Mulrow CD, Haynes RB. Systematic reviews: synthesis of best evidence for clinical decisions. Ann Intern Med 1997; 126: 37680.
  • 38
    Chambers D, Rodgers M, Woolacott N. Not only randomized controlled trials, but also case series should be considered in systematic reviews of rapidly developing technologies. J Clin Epidemiol 2009; 62: 125360.
  • 39
    Young J, Fry-Smith A, Hyde C. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with underlying severe emphysema. Thorax 1999; 54: 77989.
  • 40
    Aas J, Gessert CE, Bakken JS. Recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis: case series involving 18 patients treated with donor stool administered via a nasogastric tube. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36: 5805.
  • 41
    Garborg K, Waagsbo B, Stallemo A, Matre J, Sundoy A. Results of faecal donor instillation therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. Scand J Infect Dis 2010; 42: 85761.
  • 42
    Mellow MH, Kanatzar A. Colonoscopic fecal bacteriotherapy in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection–results and follow-up. J Okla State Med Assoc 2011; 104: 8991.
  • 43
    Rohlke F, Surawicz CM, Stollman N. Fecal flora reconstitution for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: results and methodology. J Clin Gastroenterol 2010; 44: 56770.
  • 44
    Yoon SS, Brandt LJ. Treatment of refractory/recurrent C. difficile-associated disease by donated stool transplanted via colonoscopy: a case series of 12 patients. J Clin Gastroenterol 2010; 44: 5626.
  • 45
    Silverman MS, Davis I, Pillai DR. Success of self-administered home fecal transplantation for chronic Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Gastroenterol & Hepatol 2010; 8: 4713.
  • 46
    Louie T, Louie M, Krulicki W, Byrne B, Ward L. Home-based fecal flora infusion to arrest multiply-recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) . 48th Annual ICAAC/IDSA 46th Annual Meeting Abstract No. K-4201, 579, 2008.
  • 47
    Borody TJ, Wettstein AR, Leis S, Hills LA, Campbell J, Torres M. Clostridium difficile complicating inflammatory bowel disease: Pre- and post-treatment findings. Gastroenterology 2008; 1344(Suppl. 1): A-361.
  • 48
    Kassam Z, Hundal R, Marshall J, Lee CH. Fecal transplantation via retention enema is effective for recurrent or refractory Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Digestive Disease Week ePosters Archives, S1223. 2010.
  • 49
    Nieuwdorp M, Van Nood E, Speelman P, et al. Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea with a suspension of donor faeces. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2008; 152: 192732.
  • 50
    Faust G, Langelier D, Hadded H, Menard DB. Treatment of recurrent pseudomembranous colitis (RPMC) with stool transplantation (ST): report of six cases. Can J Gastroenterol 2002; 16(Suppl. SA): A43.
  • 51
    Borody TJ, Leis Sm, Chongnan J, et al. Faecal bacteriotherapy (FB) for chronic C. difficile (Cd) syndromes. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003; 18(Suppl): B8.
  • 52
    Wettstein A, Borody TJ, Leis S, Chongnan J, Torres M, Hills LA. Fecal bacteriotherapy-an effective treatment for relapsing symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection. Gut 2007; 56(Suppl III): A303.
  • 53
    Arkkila PE, Uusitalo-Seppala R, Lehtola L, Moilanen V, Ristikankare M, Mattila EJ. Fecal bacteriotherapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Digestive Disease Week, New Orleans, LA USA. Conference Publication 2010; 138(Suppl. 1): S5.
  • 54
    Wilcox GM. Early experience with a Fecal Bacteriotherapy (FB) program for recurrent and C-difficile infection (CDI). Digestive Disease Week, Chicago, IL, USA. Conference Publication 2011; 140(Suppl. 1): S361.
  • 55
    Kelly C, de Leon L. Successful treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection with donor stool administered at colonoscopy: a case series. Am J Gastroenterol 2010; 105: S135.
  • 56
    NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Undertaking systematic reviews of research on effectiveness. CRD's guidance for those carrying out or commissioning reviews, 2nd ed. York: York Publishing Services Ltd., 2001. Report No. 4.
  • 57
    Peipert JF, Phipps MG. Observational studies. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1998; 41: 23544.
  • 58
    The Medical and Health Research Council of The Netherlands. Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection with fecal therapy: the FECAL trial (Fecal enema to Eliminate Clostridium difficile Associated Longstanding diarrhea) (Project record). Den Haag, NL: The Medical and Health Research Council of The Netherlands (ZonMw), 2007.
  • 59
    Hota S. Oral Vancomycin followed by fecal transplant versus tapering oral Vancomycin. Available at: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01226992. Accessed October 29, 2010.
  • 60
    Martin L. Modified fecal transplantation. J Clin Gastroenterol 2011; 45: 742.