• [1]
    Schmand J, Ayala A, Chaudry IH. Effects of trauma, duration of hypotension and resuscitation regimen on cellular immunity after hemorrhagic shock. Critical Cure Medicine 1994; 22: 107683.
  • [2]
    Dorman T, Breslow MJ. Altered immune function after trauma and hemorrhage: what does it all mean Critical Care Medicine 1994; 22: 106970.
  • [3]
    Chaudry IH, Ayala A. Immune consequences of hypovolemic shock and resuscitation. Current Opinion in Anaesthesia 1993; 6: 38592.
  • [4]
    Mariscalco MM. Leukocytes and the inflammatory response. Critical Cure Medicine 1993; 21: S3478.
  • [5]
    Williams TJ, Hellewell PG. Endothelial cell biology. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1992; 146: S45S50.
  • [6]
    Springer TA. Adhesion receptors of the immune system. Nature 1990; 346: 42534.
  • [7]
    Korthuis RJ, Anderson DC, Granger DN. Role of neutrophil-endothelial cell adhesion in inflammatory disorders. Journal of Critical Care 1994; 9: 4771.
  • [8]
    Rothlein R, Mainolfi EA, Czajkowski M, Marlin SD. A form of circulating ICAM-1 in human serum. Journal of Immunology 1991; 147: 378893.
  • [9]
    Seth R, Raymond FD, Makgoba MW. Circulating ICAM-1 isoforms: diagnostic prospects for inflammatory and immune disorders. Lancet 1991; 338: 8384.
  • [10]
    Jochum M, Inthorn D, Waydhas Ch, Fritz H. Diagnostic relevance of PMN elastase and soluble adhesion molecules in acute inflammation. Intensive Care Medicine 1994; 20 (Suppl): S102.
  • [11]
    St John RC, Dorinsky PM. Immunologic therapy for ARDS, septic shock. and multiple-organ failure. Chest 1998; 103: 93243.
  • [12]
    Waxmann K. Pentoxifylline in septic shock. Critical Care Medicine 1990; 18: 2434.
  • [13]
    Baker SP, O'Neill B. The injury severity score: an update. Journal of Trauma 1976; 16: 8828.
  • [14]
    Members of the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Conference Committee. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. Critical Care Medicine 1992: 20: 86414.
  • [15]
    Root RK. Leukocyte adhesion proteins: Their role in neutrophil function. Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association 1989; 101: 20724.
  • [16]
    Engler DL, Dahlgren MD, Morris D, Peterson MA, Schmid-Schoenbein G. Role of leukocytes in the response to acute myocardial ischemia and reflow in dogs. American Journal of Physiology 1986; 251: H31423.
  • [17]
    Bonfanti P, Furi BC, Wagner DD. PADGEM (GMP 140) is a component of Weibel-Palade bodies of human endothelial cells. Blood 1989: 73: 110912.
  • [18]
    Yamazaki M, Asakura H, Sato T, Tsugawa Y, Matsumura M, Kawamura Y, Ohka T, Matsuda T. Changes in plasma levels of thrombomodulin during haemodialysis. Blood, Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 1992; 3: 11317.
  • [19]
    Sakurabayashi I, Itou H, Ishu S. Studies on granulocyte elastase in plasma. Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology 1985; 33: 111318.
  • [20]
    Gearing AJH, Newman W. Circulating adhesion molecules in disease. Immunology Today 1993; 14: 50612.
  • [21]
    Lobb R, Chi-Rosso G, Leone DR, Rosa MD, Bixler S, Newman BM, Luhowskyj S. Expression and functional characterization of a soluble form of endothelial-leucocyte adhesion molecule 1. Journal of Immunology 1991; 147: 1249.
  • [22]
    Lo SK, Lee S, Ramos RA, Lobb R, Rosa M, Cm-Rosso G, Wright SD. Endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 stimulates the adhesive activity of neutrophil integrin CR3 (CD11a/CD18. Mac-1) on human neutrophils. Journal of Experimental Medicine 1991; 173: 14931500.
  • [23]
    Skinner MP, Likas CM, Burns GF, Chesterman CN, Berndt MC. GMP-140 binding to neutrophils is inhibited by sulfated glycans. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1991; 26: 53714.
  • [24]
    Mayrovitz H, Wiedeman M, Tuma R. Factors influencing leukocyte adherence in microvessels. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 1977; 38: 82330.
  • [25]
    Schmand JF, Ayala A, Chaudry IH. Influence of hydroxyethylstarch (HES) on inflammatory cytokine release following trauma and hemorrhagic shock. Intensive Care Medicine 1994; 20 (Suppl): S325.
  • [26]
    Collis RE, Collins PW, Gutteridge CN, Faul A, Newland AC, Williams DM, Webb AR. The effect of hydroxyethyl starch and other plasma volume substitutes on endothelial cell activation; an in vitro study. Intensive Care Medicine 1994; 20: 3741.
  • [27]
    Cowley HC, Heney D, Gearing AJH, Hemingway I, Webster NR. Increased circulating adhesion molecule concentrations in patients with septic inflammatory response: a prospective cohort study. Critical Care, Medicine 1994; 22: 651657.
  • [28]
    Vincent JL. Plugging the leaks? New insights into synthetic colloids. Critical Care Medicine 1991; 19: 31617.
  • [29]
    Sato K, Stelzner TJ, O'Brien RF, Weil JV, Welsh CH. Pentoxifylline lessens the endotoxin-induced increase in albumin clearance across pulmonary artery endothelial monolayers with and without neutrophils. American Respiratory Cell Molecular Biology 1991; 4: 21927.
  • [30]
    Sullivan GW, Carper HT, Novick WJ, Mandell GL. Inhibition of the inflammatory action of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor (alpha) on neutrophil function by pentoxifylline. Infection and Immunity 1988; 56: 17229.
  • [31]
    Bertiocchi F, Prosperio P, Lampugnani MG, Dejana E. The effect of pentoxifylline on polymorphonuclear cell adhesion to cultured endothelial cells. In: MandellGL, NovickWJ, eds. Pentoxifylline and leukocyte function. Weston CT : Haber and Flora, 1988: 6874.
  • [32]
    Barrosa-Aranda J, Schmidt-Schoenbein GW. Pentoxifylline pretreatment decreases the pool of circulating activated neutrophils, in-vivo adhesion to endothelium, and improves survival from hemorrhagic shock. Biorheology 1990; 27: 40218.
  • [33]
    Martich GD, Parker MM, Cunnion RE, Suffredini AF. Effects of ibuprofen and pentoxifylline on the cardiovascular response of normal humans to endotoxin. Journal of Applied Physiology 1992; 73: 92531.
  • [34]
    Lechner AJ, Rouben LR, Potthoff LH, Tredway TL, Matuschak GM. Effects of pentoxifylline on tumor necrosis production and survival during lethal E. coli sepsis vs. disseminated candidiasis with fungal septic shock. Circulation Shock 1993; 39: 30615.
  • [35]
    Schönharting M, Musikic P, Müller R. The hemorheological and antithrombotic potential of pentoxifylline (Trental)-a review. Pharmatherapeutica 1988; 5: 15969.
  • [36]
    Ward A, Clissold SP. Pentoxifylline—a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its therapeutic efficacy. Drugs 1987; 34: 5097.
  • [37]
    Montravers P, Fagon JY, Gilbert C, Blanchet F, Novara A, Chastre J. Pilot study of cardiopulmonary risk from pentoxifylline in adult respiratory distress syndrome. Chest 1993; 103: 101722.