• 1
    Wik L, Kramer-Johansen J, Myklebust H, et al. Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Journal of the American Medical Association 2005; 293: 299304.
  • 2
    Locke CJ, Berg RA, Sanders AB, et al. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Concerns about mouth-to-mouth contact. Archives of International Medicine 1995; 155: 93843.
  • 3
    Ornato JP, Hallagan LF, McMahan SB, et al. Attitudes of BCLS instructors about mouth-to-mouth resuscitation during the AIDS epidemic. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1990; 19: 1516.
  • 4
    Paal P, Falk M, Sumann G, et al. Comparison of mouth-to-mouth, mouth-to-mask and mouth-to-face-shield ventilation by lay persons. Resuscitation 2006; 70: 11723.
  • 5
    Wenzel V, Lehmkuhl P, Kubilis PS, et al. Poor correlation of mouth-to-mouth ventilation skills after basic life support training and 6 months later. Resuscitation 1997; 35: 12934.
  • 6
    Handley AJ, Koster R, Monsieurs K, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2005 Section 2. Adult basic life support and use of automated external defibrillators. Resuscitation 2005; 67 (Suppl. 1): S7S23.
  • 7
    Gries A, Zink W, Bernhard M, Messelken M, Schlechtriemen T. Realistic assessment of the physican-staffed emergency services in Germany. Anaesthesist 2006; 55: 10806.
  • 8
    Milander MM, Hiscok PS, Sanders AB, et al. Chest compression and ventilation rates during cardiopulmonary resusCitation. the effects of audible tone guidance. Academic Emergency Medicine 1995; 2: 70813.
  • 9
    Aufderheide TP, Sigurdsson G, Pirrallo RG, et al. Hyperventilation-induced hypotension during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation 2004; 109: 19605.
  • 10
    Wagner-Berger HG, Wenzel V, Voelckel WG, et al. A pilot study to evaluate the SMART BAG: a new pressure-responsive, gas-flow limiting bag-valve-mask device. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2003; 97: 16869.
  • 11
    Safar P, Escarraga LA, Chang F. Upper airway obstruction in the unconscious patient. Journal of Applied Physiology 1959; 14: 7604.
  • 12
    Elam JO, Greene DG, Schneider MA, et al. Head-tilt method of oral resuscitation. Journal of the American Medical Association 1960; 172: 8125.
  • 13
    Skinazi GL, Lindauer SJ, Isaacson RJ. Chin, nose, and lips. Normal ratios in young men and women. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 1994; 106: 51823.
  • 14
    Wilson SL, Thach BT, Brouillette RT, Abu-Osba YK. Upper airway patency in the human infant. influence of airway pressure and posture. Journal of Applied Physiology 1980; 48: 5004.
  • 15
    Fuchs G, Schwarz G, Baumgartner A, et al. Fiberoptic intubation in 327 neurosurgical patients with lesions of the cervical spine. Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology 1999; 11: 116.
  • 16
    Hallstrom AP, Ornato JP, Weisfeldt M, et al. Public-access defibrillation and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. New England Journal of Medicine 2004; 351: 63746.