• 1
    Griffiths RD, Jones C. Seven lessons from 20 years of follow-up of intensive care unit survivors. Current Opinion in Critical Care 2007; 13: 50813.
  • 2
    Pochard F, Azoulay E, Chevret S, et al. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in family members of intensive care unit patients: ethical hypothesis regarding decision-making capacity. Critical Care Medicine 2001; 29: 18937.
  • 3
    Burchardi H. Let’s open the door! Intensive Care Medicine 2002; 28: 13712.
  • 4
    Fumagalli S, Boncinelli L, Lo NA, et al. Reduced cardiocirculatory complications with unrestrictive visiting policy in an intensive care unit: results from a pilot, randomized trial. Circulation 2006; 113: 94652.
  • 5
    Kleinpell RM. Visiting hours in the intensive care unit: more evidence that open visitation is beneficial. Critical Care Medicine 2008; 36: 3345.
  • 6
    Levy MM. A view from the other side. Critical Care Medicine 2007; 35: 6034.
  • 7
    Davidson JE. Family-centered care: meeting the needs of patients’ families and helping families adapt to critical illness. Critical Care Nurse 2009; 29: 2834.
  • 8
    Slota M, Shearn D, Potersnak K, Haas L. Perspectives on family-centered, flexible visitation in the intensive care unit setting. Critical Care Medicine 2003; 31: S3626.
  • 9
    Stillwell SB. Importance of visiting needs as perceived by family members of patients in the intensive care unit. Heart and Lung 1984; 13: 23842.
  • 10
    Gonzalez CE, Carroll DL, Elliott JS, Fitzgerald PA, Vallent HJ. Visiting preferences of patients in the intensive care unit and in a complex care medical unit. American Journal of Critical Care 2004; 13: 1948.
  • 11
    Azoulay E, Pochard F, Kentish-Barnes N, et al. Risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms in family members of intensive care unit patients. American Journal Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2005; 171: 98794.
  • 12
    Garrouste-Org , Philippart F, Timsit JF, et al. Perceptions of a 24-hour visiting policy in the intensive care unit. Critical Care Medicine 2008; 36: 305.
  • 13
    Quinio P, Savry C, Deghelt A, Guilloux M, Catineau J, De Tinténiac A. A multicenter survey of visiting policies in French intensive care units. Intensive Care Medicine 2002; 28: 138994.
  • 14
    Lee MD, Friedenberg AS, Mukpo DH, Conray K, Palmisciano A, Levy MM. Visiting hours policies in New England intensive care units: strategies for improvement. Critical Care Medicine 2007; 35: 497501.
  • 15
    Kirchhoff KT, Pugh E, Calame RM, Reynolds N. Nurses’ beliefs and attitudes toward visiting in adult critical care settings. American Journal of Critical Care 1993; 2: 23845.
  • 16
    Berti D, Ferdinande P, Moons P. Beliefs and attitudes of intensive care nurses toward visits and open visiting policy. Intensive Care Medicine 2007; 33: 10605.
  • 17
    Giannini A, Miccinesi G, Leoncino S. Visiting policies in Italian intensive care units: a nationwide survey. Intensive Care Medicine 2008; 34: 125662.
  • 18
    CMA Medical Data. Directory of Operating Theatres and Departments of Surgery. Cambridge: CME Medical Data, 2009.
  • 19
    Molter NC. Needs of relatives of critically ill patients: a descriptive study. Heart and Lung 1979; 8: 3329.
  • 20
    Henneman EA, Cardin S. Family-centered critical care: a practical approach to making it happen. Critical Care Nurse 2002; 22: 129.
  • 21
    Davidson JE, Powers K, Hedayat KM, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for support of the family in the patient-centered intensive care unit: American College of Critical Care Medicine Task Force 2004–2005. Critical Care Medicine 2007; 35: 60522.
  • 22
    Youngner SJ, Coulton C, Welton R, Juknialis B, Jackson DL. ICU visiting policies. Critical Care Medicine 1984; 12: 6068.
  • 23
    Clarke CM. Children visiting family and friends on adult intensive care units: the nurses’ perspective. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2000; 31: 3308.
  • 24
    Johnson DL. Preparing children for visiting parents in the adult ICU. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing 1994; 13: 1525.
  • 25
    Nicholson AC, Titler M, Montgomery LA, et al. Effects of child visitation in adult critical care units: a pilot study. Heart and Lung 1993; 22: 3645.
  • 26
    Fontana CJ, Pittiglio LI. Sleep deprivation among critical care patients. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly 2010; 33: 7581.
  • 27
    Plowfield LA. Living a nightmare: family experiences of waiting following neurological crisis. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing 1999; 31: 2318.
  • 28
    Azoulay E, Pochard F. Meeting the needs of intensive care unit patients’ family members: beyond satisfaction. Critical Care Medicine 2002; 30: 2171.
  • 29
    Jastremski CA, Harvey M. Making changes to improve the intensive care unit experience for patients and their families. New Horizons 1998; 6: 99109.
  • 30
    Pelke S, Ching D, Easa D, Melish ME. Gowning does not affect colonization or infection rates in a neonatal intensive care unit. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 1994; 148: 101620.
  • 31
    Goldmann DA. The role of barrier precautions in infection control. The Journal of Hospital Infection 1991; 18: 51523.
  • 32
    Jamerson PA, Scheibmeir M, Bott MJ, Crighton F, Hinton RH, Cobb AK. The experiences of families with a relative in the intensive care unit. Heart and Lung 1996; 25: 46774.
  • 33
    Azoulay E, Pochard F, Chevret S, et al. Impact of a family information leaflet on effectiveness of information provided to family members of intensive care unit patients: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002; 165: 43842.
  • 34
    Henneman EA, McKenzie JB, Dewa CS. An evaluation of interventions for meeting the information needs of families of critically ill patients. American Journal of Critical Care 1992; 1: 8593.
  • 35
    Azoulay E, Chevret S, Leleu G, et al. Half the families of intensive care unit patients experience inadequate communication with physicians. Critical Care Medicine 2000; 28: 30449.
  • 36
    Medland JJ, Ferrans CE. Effectiveness of a structured communication program for family members of patients in an ICU. American Journal of Critical Care 1998; 7: 249.