• 1
    Schwartz DE, Matthay MA, Cohen NH. Death and other complications of emergency airway management in critically ill adults. A prospective investigation of 297 tracheal intubations. Anesthesiology 1995; 82: 36776.
  • 2
    Mort TC. The incidence and risk factors for cardiac arrest during emergency tracheal intubation: a justification for incorporating the ASA Guidelines in the remote location. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 2004; 16: 50816.
  • 3
    Mort TC. Emergency tracheal intubation: complications associated with repeated laryngoscopic attempts. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2004; 99: 60713.
  • 4
    Jaber S, Amraoui J, Lefrant JY, et al. Clinical practice and risk factors for immediate complications of endotracheal intubation in the intensive care unit: a prospective, multiple-center study. Critical Care Medicine 2006; 34: 235561.
  • 5
    Griesdale DE, Bosma TL, Kurth T, Isac G, Chittock DR. Complications of endotracheal intubation in the critically ill. Intensive Care Medicine 2008; 34: 183542.
  • 6
    Martin LD, Mhyre JM, Shanks AM, Tremper KK, Kheterpal S. 3,423 Emergency tracheal intubations at a university hospital: airway outcomes and complications. Anesthesiology 2011; 114: 428.
  • 7
    Mayo PH, Hegde A, Eisen LA, Kory P, Doelken P. A program to improve the quality of emergency endotracheal intubation. Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 2011; 26: 506.
  • 8
    Thomas AN, McGrath BA. Patient safety incidents associated with airway devices in critical care: a review of reports to the UK National Patient Safety Agency. Anaesthesia 2009; 64: 35865.
  • 9
    Goldhill DR, Cook TM, Waldmann CS. Airway incidents in critical care, the NPSA, medical training and capnography. Anaesthesia 2009; 64: 3547.
  • 10
    Bouza C, Garcia E, Diaz M, Segovia E, Rodriguez I. Unplanned extubation in orally intubated medical patients in the intensive care unit: a prospective cohort study. Heart and Lung 2007; 36: 2706.
  • 11
    Boulain T. Unplanned extubations in the adult intensive care unit: a prospective multicenter study. Association des Reanimateurs du Centre-Ouest. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1998; 157: 11317.
  • 12
    Chevron V, Menard JF, Richard JC, Girault C, Leroy J, Bonmarchand G. Unplanned extubation: risk factors of development and predictive criteria for reintubation. Critical Care Medicine 1998; 26: 104953.
  • 13
    Kress JP, Pohlman AS, O’Connor MF, Hall JB. Daily interruption of sedative infusions in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. New England Journal of Medicine 2000; 342: 14717.
  • 14
    Mort TC. Unplanned tracheal extubation outside the operating room: a quality improvement audit of hemodynamic and tracheal airway complications associated with emergency tracheal reintubation. Anesthesia and Analgesia 1998; 86: 11716.
  • 15
    de Vos M, Graafmans W, Keesman E, Westert G, van der Voort PH. Quality measurement at intensive care units: which indicators should we use? Journal of Critical Care 2007; 22: 26774.
  • 16
    Epstein SK, Nevins ML, Chung J. Effect of unplanned extubation on outcome of mechanical ventilation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2000; 161: 19126.
  • 17
    Cormack RS, Lehane J. Difficult tracheal intubation in obstetrics. Anaesthesia 1984; 39: 110511.
  • 18
    Shiga T, Wajima Z, Inoue T, Sakamoto A. Predicting difficult intubation in apparently normal patients: a meta-analysis of bedside screening test performance. Anesthesiology 2005; 103: 42937.
  • 19
    Cook TM, Woodall N, Frerk C. Major complications of airway management in the UK: results of the Fourth National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Difficult Airway Society. Part 1: anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2011; 106: 61731.
  • 20
    Cook TM, Woodall N, Harper J, Benger J. Major complications of airway management in the UK: results of the Fourth National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Difficult Airway Society. Part 2: intensive care and emergency departments. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2011; 106: 63242.
  • 21
    Cook TM, Woodall N, Frerk C. 4th National Audit Project of The Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Difficult Airway Society. Major Complications of Airway Management in the United Kingdom. Report and Findings. London: The Royal College of Anaesthetists, 2011. (Last accessed 4 October 2011).
  • 22
    Whitaker DK. Time for capnography – everywhere. Anaesthesia 2011; 66: 5449.
  • 23
    Ireland AoAoGBa. Recommendations for Standards of Monitoring During Anaesthesia and Recovery, 4th edn. London: Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland, 2007.
  • 24
    Intensive Care Society. Standards for capnography in critical care. London: Intensive Care Society, 2009.
  • 25
    Georgiou AP, Gouldson S, Amphlett AM. The use of capnography and the availability of airway equipment on Intensive Care Units in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Anaesthesia 2010; 65: 4627.
  • 26
    Cheifetz IM, Myers TR. Respiratory therapies in the critical care setting. Should every mechanically ventilated patient be monitored with capnography from intubation to extubation?. Respiratory Care 2007; 52: 42338. discussion 38–42.
  • 27
    Veenith T, Ganeshamoorthy S, Standley T, Carter J, Young P. Intensive care unit tracheostomy: a snapshot of UK practice. International Archives of Medicine 2008; 1: 21.
  • 28
    Diaz-Reganon G, Minambres E, Ruiz A, Gonzalez-Herrera S, Holanda-Pena M, Lopez-Espadas F. Safety and complications of percutaneous tracheostomy in a cohort of 800 mixed ICU patients. Anaesthesia 2008; 63: 1198203.
  • 29
    Dempsey GA, Grant CA, Jones TM. Percutaneous tracheostomy: a 6 yr prospective evaluation of the single tapered dilator technique. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2010; 105: 7828.
  • 30
    El Solh AA, Jaafar W. A comparative study of the complications of surgical tracheostomy in morbidly obese critically ill patients. Critical Care 2007; 11: R3.
  • 31
    Mackenzie S, Murphy P, Bodenham A, et al. Standards for the Care of Adult Patients with a Temporary Tracheostomy. London: Intensive Care Society, 2008.
  • 32
    Hatfield A, Bodenham A. Portable ultrasonic scanning of the anterior neck before percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. Anaesthesia 1999; 54: 6603.
  • 33
    Linstedt U, Zenz M, Krull K, Hager D, Prengel AW. Laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube for percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy: a comparison of visibility of intratracheal structures. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2010; 110: 107682.
  • 34
    Craven RM, Laver SR, Cook TM, Nolan JP. Use of the Pro-Seal LMA facilitates percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia 2003; 50: 71820.
  • 35
    Mort TC. Preoxygenation in critically ill patients requiring emergency tracheal intubation. Critical Care Medicine 2005; 33: 26725.
  • 36
    Pandit JJ, Duncan T, Robbins PA. Total oxygen uptake with two maximal breathing techniques and the tidal volume breathing technique: a physiologic study of preoxygenation. Anesthesiology 2003; 99: 8416.
  • 37
    Mort TC, Waberski BH, Clive J. Extending the preoxygenation period from 4 to 8 mins in critically ill patients undergoing emergency intubation. Critical Care Medicine 2009; 37: 6871.
  • 38
    Baillard C, Fosse JP, Sebbane M, et al. Noninvasive ventilation improves preoxygenation before intubation of hypoxic patients. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2006; 174: 1717.
  • 39
    Constantin JM, Futier E, Cherprenet AL, et al. A recruitment maneuver increases oxygenation after intubation of hypoxemic intensive care unit patients: a randomized controlled study. Critical Care 2010; 14: R76.
  • 40
    Dixon BJ, Dixon JB, Carden JR, et al. Preoxygenation is more effective in the 25 degrees head-up position than in the supine position in severely obese patients: a randomized controlled study. Anesthesiology 2005; 102: 11105.
  • 41
    Jaber S, Jung B, Corne P, et al. An intervention to decrease complications related to endotracheal intubation in the intensive care unit: a prospective, multiple-center study. Intensive Care Medicine 2010; 36: 24855.
  • 42
    Jabre P, Combes X, Lapostolle F, et al. Etomidate versus ketamine for rapid sequence intubation in acutely ill patients: a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2009; 374: 293300.
  • 43
    Jabre P, Avenel A, Combes X, et al. Morbidity related to emergency endotracheal intubation – a substudy of the KETAmine SEDation trial. Resuscitation 2011; 82: 51722.
  • 44
    Cuthbertson BH, Sprung CL, Annane D, et al. The effects of etomidate on adrenal responsiveness and mortality in patients with septic shock. Intensive Care Medicine 2009; 35: 186876.
  • 45
    Leibowitz AB. Tracheal intubation in the intensive care unit: extremely hazardous even in the best of hands. Critical Care Medicine 2006; 34: 24978.
  • 46
    Underwood SM, McIndoe AK. Influence of changing work patterns on training in anaesthesia: an analysis of activity in a UK teaching hospital from 1996 to 2004. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2005; 95: 61621.
  • 47
    Cook TM, Haslam M. Complications of airway management in the ICU – time for a closer look. Care of the Critically Ill 2008; 24: 357.
  • 48
    Schmidt UH, Kumwilaisak K, Bittner E, George E, Hess D. Effects of supervision by attending anesthesiologists on complications of emergency tracheal intubation. Anesthesiology 2008; 109: 9737.
  • 49
    Hart EM, Owen H. Errors and omissions in anesthesia: a pilot study using a pilot’s checklist. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2005; 101: 24650.
  • 50
    Thomassen O, Brattebo G, Softeland E, Lossius HM, Heltne JK. The effect of a simple checklist on frequent pre-induction deficiencies. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 2010; 54: 117984.
  • 51
    Flin R, Goeters K, Amalberti R. The development of the NOTECHS system for evaluating pilots’ CRM skills. Human Factors and Aerospace Safety 2003; 3: 95117.
  • 52
    Fletcher G, Flin R, McGeorge P, Glavin R, Maran N, Patey R. Anaesthetists’ Non-Technical Skills (ANTS): evaluation of a behavioural marker system. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2003; 90: 5808.
  • 53
    Flin R, Fletcher G, McGeorge P, Sutherland A, Patey R. Anaesthetists’ attitudes to teamwork and safety. Anaesthesia 2003; 58: 23342.
  • 54
    Flin R, O’Connor P, Crichton M. Safety at the Sharp End. A Guide to Non-Technical Skills. Ashgate: Aldershot, 2008.
  • 55
    Gaba DM, Howard SK, Small SD. Situation awareness in anesthesiology. Human Factors 1995; 37: 2031.
  • 56
    Hales BM, Pronovost PJ. The checklist – a tool for error management and performance improvement. Journal of Critical Care 2006; 21: 2315.
  • 57
    Deakin CD, Morrison LJ, Morley PT, et al. Part 8: Advanced life support: 2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 2010; 81 (Suppl 1): e93174.
  • 58
    Deakin CD, Nolan JP, Soar J, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 4. Adult advanced life support. Resuscitation 2010; 81: 130552.
  • 59
    Grmec S. Comparison of three different methods to confirm tracheal tube placement in emergency intubation. Intensive Care Medicine 2002; 28: 7014.
  • 60
    Takeda T, Tanigawa K, Tanaka H, Hayashi Y, Goto E, Tanaka K. The assessment of three methods to identify tracheal tube placement in the emergency setting. Resuscitation 2003; 56: 1537.
  • 61
    Pokorna M, Necas E, Kratochvil J, Skripsky R, Andrlik M, Franek O. A sudden increase in partial pressure end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO(2)) at the moment of return of spontaneous circulation. Journal of Emergency Medicine 2010; 38: 61421.
  • 62
    Jeanrenaud P, Girotra V, Wharton T, Main N, Konuralp R, Dempsey G. Difficult airway trolleys for the critical care unit. Journal of the Intensive Care Society 2010; 11: 98103.
  • 63
    Henderson JJ, Popat MT, Latto IP, Pearce AC. Difficult Airway Society guidelines for management of the unanticipated difficult intubation. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 67594.
  • 64
    Walters J. Airway management on the intensive care unit - is it time for our own training and guidelines? Journal of the Intensive Care Society 2011; 12: 1634.
  • 65
    Draycott T, Sibanda T, Owen L, et al. Does training in obstetric emergencies improve neonatal outcome? British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2006; 113: 17782.
  • 66
    Draycott TJ, Crofts JF, Ash JP, et al. Improving neonatal outcome through practical shoulder dystocia training. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2008; 112: 1420.
  • 67
    Weinstock PH, Kappus LJ, Garden A, Burns JP. Simulation at the point of care: reduced-cost, in situ training via a mobile cart. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 2009; 10: 17681.
  • 68
    Fletcher GC, McGeorge P, Flin RH, Glavin RJ, Maran NJ. The role of non-technical skills in anaesthesia: a review of current literature. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2002; 88: 41829.
  • 69
    Benger J, Nolan J, Clancy M. Emergency Airway Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.