• 1
    Louizos AA, Hadzilia SJ, Davilis DI, Samanta EG, Georgiou LG. Administration of esmolol in microlaryngeal surgery for blunting the hemodynamic response during laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation in cigarette smokers. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology2007; 116: 10711.
  • 2
    Miyazaki M, Kadoi Y, Takashi S, Sawano Y, Shimada H. Comparative effects of propofol, landiolol, and nicardipine on hemodynamic and bispectral index responses to endotracheal intubation: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia2008; 20: 25762.
  • 3
    Kocamanoglu IS, Sener EB, Ustun E, Tur A. Effects of lidocaine and prednisolone on endoscopic rigid laryngoscopy. Laryngoscope2006; 116: 237.
  • 4
    Hirota K, Kabara S, Kushikata T, Kitayama M, Ishihara H, Matsuki A. Effects of nicardipine and diltiazem on the bispectral index and 95% spectral edge frequency. European Journal of Anaesthesiology2003; 20: 80912.
  • 5
    Drover DR, Schmiesing C, Buchin AF, et al.Titration of sevoflurane in elderly patients: blinded, randomized clinical trial, in non-cardiac surgery after beta-adrenergic blockade. Journal of Clinical Monitoring Computing2011; 25: 17581.
  • 6
    Kamibayashi T, Maze M. Clinical uses of alpha2-adrenergic agonists. Anesthesiology2000; 93: 13459.
  • 7
    Hall JE, Uhrich TD, Barney JA, Arain SR, Ebert TJ. Sedative, amnestic, and analgesic properties of small-dose dexmedetomidine infusions. Anesthesia and Analgesia2000; 90: 699705.
  • 8
    Chrysostomou C, Schmitt CG. Dexmedetomidine: sedation, analgesia and beyond. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology2008; 4: 61927.
  • 9
    Khan ZP, Munday IT, Jones RM, Thornton C, Mant TG, Amin D. Effects of dexmedetomidine on isoflurane requirements in healthy volunteers. 1: Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions. British Journal of Anaesthesia1999; 83: 37280.
  • 10
    Tanskanen PE, Kyttä JV, Randell TT, Aantaa RE. Dexmedetomidine as an anaesthetic adjuvant in patients undergoing intracranial tumour surgery: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled study. British Journal of Anaesthesia2006; 97: 65865.
  • 11
    Ramsay MA, Luterman DL. Dexmedetomidine as a total intravenous anesthetic agent. Anesthesiology2004; 101: 78790.
  • 12
    Jalowiecki P, Rudner R, Gonciarz M, Kawecki P, Petelenz M, Dziurdzik P. Sole use of dexmedetomidine has limited utility for conscious sedation during outpatient colonoscopy. Anesthesiology2005; 103: 26973.
  • 13
    Zeyneloglu P, Pirat A, Candan S, Kuyumcu S, Tekin I, Arslan G. Dexmedetomidine causes prolonged recovery when compared with midazolam/fentanyl combination in outpatient shock wave lithotripsy. European Journal of Anaesthesiology2008; 25: 9617.
  • 14
    Aantaa R, Kanto J, Scheinin M, Kallio A, Scheinin H. Dexmedetomidine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, reduces anesthetic requirements for patients undergoing minor gynecologic surgery. Anesthesiology1990; 73: 2305.
  • 15
    Kreuer S, Biedler A, Larsen R, Altmann S, Wilhelm W. Narcotrend monitoring allows faster emergence and a reduction of drug consumption in propofol-remifentanil anesthesia. Anesthesiology2003; 99: 3441.
  • 16
    Schmidt GN, Bischoff P, Standl T, Jensen K, Voigt M, Schulte Am Esch J. Narcotrend and Bispectral Index monitor are superior to classic electroencephalographic parameters for the assessment of anesthetic states during propofol-remifentanil anesthesia. Anesthesiology2003; 99: 10727.
  • 17
    Minto CF, Schnider TW, Egan TD, et al.Influence of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of remifentanil. I. Model development. Anesthesiology1997; 86: 1023.
  • 18
    Bloor BC, Ward DS, Belleville JP, Maze M. Effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine in humans. II. Hemodynamic changes. Anesthesiology1992; 77: 113442.
  • 19
    Slogoff S, Keats AS. Myocardial ischemia revisited. Anesthesiology2006; 105: 2146.
  • 20
    Ingersoll-Weng E, Manecke GR Jr, Thistlethwaite PA. Dexmedetomidine and cardiac arrest. Anesthesiology2004; 100: 7389.
  • 21
    Jaakola ML, Salonen M, Lehtinen R, Scheinin H. The analgesic action of dexmedetomidine – a novel alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist – in healthy volunteers. Pain1991; 46: 2815.
  • 22
    Aantaa R, Jaakola ML, Kallio A, Kanto J. Reduction of the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane by dexmedetomidine. Anesthesiology1997; 86: 105560.
  • 23
    Peden CJ, Cloote AH, Stratford N, Prys-Roberts C. The effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine premedication on the dose requirement of propofol to induce loss of consciousness in patients receiving alfentanil. Anaesthesia2001; 56: 40813.
  • 24
    Haenggi M, Ypparila H, Hauser K, et al.The effects of dexmedetomidine/remifentanil and midazolam/remifentanil on auditory-evoked potentials and electroencephalogram at light-to-moderate sedation levels in healthy subjects. Anesthesia and Analgesia2006; 103: 11639.
  • 25
    Maksimow A, Snapir A, Sarkela M, et al.Assessing the depth of dexmedetomidine-induced sedation with electroencephalogram (EEG)-based spectral entropy. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica2007; 51: 2230.
  • 26
    Apan A, Doganci N, Ergan A, Buyukkocak U. Bispectral index-guided intraoperative sedation with dexmedetomidine and midazolam infusion in outpatient cataract surgery. Minerva Anestesiologica2009; 75: 23944.
  • 27
    Kasuya Y, Govinda R, Rauch S, Mascha EJ, Sessler DI, Turan A. The correlation between bispectral index and observational sedation scale in volunteers sedated with dexmedetomidine and propofol. Anesthesia and Analgesia2009; 109: 18115.
  • 28
    Haenggi M, Ypparila-Wolters H, Hauser K, et al.Intra- and inter-individual variation of BIS-index and entropy during controlled sedation with midazolam/remifentanil and dexmedetomidine/remifentanil in healthy volunteers: an interventional study. Critical Care2009; 13: R20.
  • 29
    Kaskinoro K, Maksimow A, Langsjo J, et al.Wide inter-individual variability of bispectral index and spectral entropy at loss of consciousness during increasing concentrations of dexmedetomidine, propofol, and sevoflurane. British Journal of Anaesthesia2011; 107: 57380.
  • 30
    Guler G, Akin A, Tosun Z, Ors S, Esmaoglu A, Boyaci A. Single-dose dexmedetomidine reduces agitation and provides smooth extubation after pediatric adenotonsillectomy. Pediatric Anesthesia2005; 15: 7626.
  • 31
    Mantz J, Josserand J, Hamada S. Dexmedetomidine: new insights. European Journal of Anaesthesiology2011; 28: 36.