Construction of genetic linkage maps is an important first step for a variety of genomic applications, such as selective breeding in aquaculture, comparative studies of chromosomal evolution and identification of loci that have played key roles in the evolution of a species. Here we present a sex-specific linkage map for coho salmon. The map was constructed using 148 AFLP markers, 133 microsatellite loci and the phenotypic locus SEX. Twenty-four linkage groups spanning 287.4 cM were mapped in males, and 33 linkage groups spanning 429.7 cM were mapped in females. Several male linkage groups corresponded to two female linkage groups. The combination of linkage groups across both sexes appeared to characterize regions of 26 chromosomes. Two homeologous chromosomes were identified based on information from duplicated loci. Homologies between the coho and rainbow trout maps were examined. Eighty-six loci were found to form common linkage relationships between the two maps; these relationships provided evidence for whole-arm fissions, fusions and conservation of chromosomal regions in the evolution of these two species.