This study describes complete control region sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 117 Ethiopian cattle from 10 representative populations, in conjunction with the available cattle sequences in GenBank. In total, 79 polymorphic sites were detected, and these defined 81 different haplotypes. The haplotype and nucleotide diversity of Ethiopian cattle did not vary among the populations studied. All mtDNA sequences from Ethiopian cattle converged into one main maternal lineage (T1) that corresponds to African Bos taurus cattle. According to the results of this study, no zebu mtDNA haplotypes have been found in Ethiopia, where the most extensive hybridization took place on the African continent.