The objective of this study was to investigate an association between polymorphisms in the FABP4 gene and phenotypic variation for marbling and carcass weight (CWT) in a population of Hanwoo steers. We re-sequenced 4.3 kb of the FABP4 gene region in 24 Hanwoo bulls and identified 16 SNPs and 1 microsatellite polymorphism. Of these 16 SNPs, three SNPs [g.2774G>C (intron I), g.3473A>T (intron II) and g.3631G>A (exon III, creating a p.Met >Val amino acid substitution)] were genotyped in 583 steers to assess their association with carcass traits. The g.3473A allele showed a significant increasing effect on CWT (P = 0.01) and the g.3631G allele was associated with higher marbling score (P = 0.006). One haplotype of these three SNPs (CAG) was significantly associated with CWT (P = 0.02) and marbling score (P = 0.05) and could potentially be of value for marker assisted selection in Hanwoo cattle. The CAG haplotype effect for CWT was larger (11.14 ± 5.03 kg) than the largest single locus effect of g.3473A>T (5.01 ± 2.2 kg).