• Boldman K.G., Kriese L.A., Van Vleck L.D., Van Tassell C.P. & Kachman S.D. (1995) A Manual for Use of MTDFREML. A Set of Programs to Obtain Estimates of Variances and Covariances [DRAFT]. ARS-USDA, Washington, DC.
  • Cunningham E.P., Dooley J.J., Splan R.K. & Bradley D.G. (2001) Microsatellite diversity, pedigree relatedness and the contributions of founder lineages to thoroughbred horses. Animal Genetics 32, 3604.
  • Gaffney B. & Cunningham E.P. (1988) Estimation of genetic trend in racing performance of Thoroughbred horses. Nature 332, 7223.
  • Grobet L., Martin L.J., Poncelet D. et al. (1997) A deletion in the bovine myostatin gene causes the double-muscled phenotype in cattle. Nature Genetics 17, 714.
  • Gu J., Orr N., Park S.D., Katz L.M., Sulimova G., MacHugh D.E. & Hill E.W. (2009) A genome scan for positive selection in thoroughbred horses. PLoS ONE 4, e5767.
  • Gunn H.M. (1987) Muscle, bone and fat proportions and muscle distribution of thoroughbreds and quarter horses. In: Equine Exercise Physiology 2: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Equine Exercise Physiology; August 7-11 1986; San Diego, California, United States. Available:
  • Henderson C.R. (1973) Sire evaluation and genetic trends. In: Proceeding of Animal Breeding and Genetics Symposium in Honor of Lush J.L. ASAS and ADSA (Ed. by L.V.Cundiff), pp. 1028. Champaign, IL.
  • Hill E.W., Bradley D.G., Al-Barody M., Ertugrul O., Splan R.K., Zakharov I. & Cunningham E.P. (2002) History and integrity of thoroughbred dam lines revealed in equine mtDNA variation. Animal Genetics 33, 28794.
  • Hill E.W., Gu J., Eivers S.S., Fonseca R.G., McGivney B.A., Govindarajan P., Orr N., Katz L.M. & MacHugh D. (2010) A sequence polymorphism in MSTN predicts sprinting ability and racing stamina in thoroughbred horses. PLoS 5, e8645.
  • Miyake T., Oki H., Nishiura A., Ibi T. & Sasaki Y. (1999) Computer Program for Genetic Analysis with Gibbs Sampling for Threshold Models, GSTM. Computer Program Library No. 38, Animal Breeding and Genetics, Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, Japan.
  • Mosher D.S., Quignon P., Bustamante C.D., Sutter N.B., Mellersh C.S., Parker H.G. & Ostrander E.A. (2007) A mutation in the myostatin gene increases muscle mass and enhances racing performance in heterozygote dogs. PloS Genetics 3, e79.
  • Mota M.D., Abrahão A.R. & Oliveira H.N. (2005) Genetic and environmental parameters for racing time at different distances in Brazilian Thoroughbreds. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 122, 3939.
  • Oki H., Sasaki Y. & Willham R.L. (1995) Genetic parameter estimates for racing time by restricted maximum likelihood in the thoroughbred horse of Japan. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 112, 14650.
  • Penedo M.C., Millon L.V., Bernoco D. et al. (2005) International equine gene mapping workshop report: a comprehensive linkage map constructed with data from new markers and by merging four mapping resources. Cytogenetics and Genome Research 111, 515.
  • Raudsepp T., Gustafson-Seabury A., Durkin K. et al. (2008) A 4,103 marker integrated physical and comparative map of the horse genome. Cytogenetics and Genome Research 122, 2836.
  • SAS Institute Inc. (2000) SAS/STAT User’s Guide, Version 8, Vol. 2. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
  • Sobczynska M. (2006) Genetic correlation between racing performance at different racing distances in Thoroughbreds and Arab horses. Czechoslovak Journal of Animal Science 51, 5238.
  • Swinburne J.E., Boursnell M., Hill G. et al. (2006) Single linkage group per chromosome genetic linkage map for the horse, based on two-three-generation, full-sibling, crossbred horse reference families. Genomics 87, 129.
  • Tolley E.S., Notter D.R. & Marlowe T.J. (1985) A review of the inheritance of racing performance in horses. Animal Breeding Abstracts 53, 16385.
  • Tozaki T., Mashima S., Hirota K., Miura N., Choi-Miura N.H. & Tomita M. (2001) Characterization of equine microsatellites and microsatellite-linked repetitive elements (eMLREs) by efficient cloning and genotyping methods. DNA Research 8, 3345.
  • Tozaki T., Hirota K., Hasegawa T., Tomita M. & Kurosawa M. (2005) Prospects for whole genome linkage disequilibrium mapping in thoroughbreds. Gene 14, 12732.
  • Tozaki T., Swinburne J., Hirota K., Hasegawa T., Ishida N. & Tobe T. (2007a) Improved resolution of the comparative horse-human map: investigating markers with in silico and linkage mapping approaches. Gene 392, 1816.
  • Tozaki T., Hirota K., Hasegawa T., Ishida N. & Tobe T. (2007b) Whole-genome linkage disequilibrium screening for complex traits in horses. Molecular genetics and genomics 277, 66372.
  • Wade C.M., Giulotto E., Sigurdsson S. et al. (2009) Genome sequence, comparative analysis, and population genetics of the domestic horse. Science 326, 8657.
  • Williamson S.A. & Beilharz R.G. (1998) The inheritance of speed, stamina and other racing performance characteristics in the Australian thoroughbred. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 115, 116.