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Genetic structure of Eurasian and North American mallard ducks based on mtDNA data

Authors

  • Z.-C. Hou,

    1. National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding and Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics and Breeding, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
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    • These authors contributed equally to this paper.

  • F.-X. Yang,

    1. National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding and Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics and Breeding, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
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    • These authors contributed equally to this paper.

  • L.-J. Qu,

    1. National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding and Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics and Breeding, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
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  • J.-X. Zheng,

    1. National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding and Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics and Breeding, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
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  • J.-M. Brun,

    1. INRA, Station d’Amélioration Génétique des Animaux, BP 52627, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex, France
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  • B. Basso,

    1. INRA, Station d’Amélioration Génétique des Animaux, BP 52627, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex, France
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  • F. Pitel,

    1. INRA, UR444, Laboratoire de Génétique Cellulaire, F-31326 Auzeville, France
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  • N. Yang,

    1. National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding and Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics and Breeding, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
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  • G.-Y. Xu

    1. National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding and Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics and Breeding, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
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G.-Y. Xu, Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.
E-mail: ncppt@cau.edu.cn

Summary

To elucidate the origin and genetic structure of the domesticated duck in Eurasia and North America, we sequenced 114 duck D-loop sequences and retrieved 489 D-loop sequences from GenBank. In total, 603 ducks including 50 duck breeds/populations from eight countries (China, France, Russia, India, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Thailand and USA) were used in this study. One hundred and thirty-four haplotypes and 81 variable sites were detected. H49 was the predominant haplotype, which was considered to be the same dominant haplotype found in the previous studies, and was found in 309 birds. The smallest values for both genetic differentiation index (FST, 0.04156) and the number of the net nucleotide substitutions between two populations (DA, 0.00018) were observed between Eurasian domestic ducks and Eurasian mallards. No geography, breed or population clusters were observed in the Eurasian domestic ducks and mallards. Five haplotypes were shared by USA mallards and Eurasian domestic duck/Eurasian mallards. Only one haplotype (H49) was shared by Eurasian domestic ducks and China spot-billed ducks. By combining phylogenetic analyses, haplotype network profile, genetic distances and shared haplotypes, we can draw two major conclusions: (i) Eurasian and North American mallards show a clear geographic distribution pattern; (ii) Eurasian domestic ducks are derived from the Eurasian mallards, not from the spot-billed ducks.

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