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Optimum digestible protein and energy levels and ratio for greater amberjack Seriola dumerili (Risso) fingerling


Correspondence: F Takakuwa, Laboratory of Fish Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University, B200 Monobe, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8502, Japan. E-mail:


A study was conducted to determine optimum dietary digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) levels and DP DE−1 ratio for growth of greater amberjack Seriola dumerili fingerlings. A 3 × 3 factorial design with duplication was used in this study. Nine experimental diets were formulated to contain three levels of crude protein (CP; 420, 470 and 530 g kg−1) and three levels of crude lipid (CL; 130, 180 and 230 g kg−1). Nine groups of fingerling (initial weight 51.8 g) were fed each experimental diet for 40 days. Final body weight, feed efficiency, specific growth rate and energy efficiency were significantly affected by dietary protein and lipid level. These parameters tended to improve with increasing dietary protein level. Conversely, an increase of lipid level negatively affected these parameters. High growth rate and feed efficiency were obtained from fish fed the diet containing 393 g kg−1 DP and 14.2 MJ kg−1 DE (27.7 g MJ−1 DP DE−1). The high DP DE−1 (27.7 g MJ−1) indicates that greater amberjack fingerling are highly dependent on dietary protein as an energy source.