• antibacterial activity;
  • carnobacteria;
  • fish intestine;
  • fish pathogens;
  • scanning electron microscopy


In the present study a microtitre plate assay was used to evaluate antagonistic activity of 157 intestinal bacteria belonging to Carnobacterium isolated from Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and wolf fish (Anarhichas lupus L.) against fish pathogenic bacteria. One hundred and forty-nine strains isolated from Arctic charr fed; (a) different lipid levels and (b) different fatty acids were screened for their ability to inhibit growth of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida strain AL 2020 (the causative agent of furunculosis). Carnobacterium maltaromaticum and Carnobacterium mobile isolated from fish fed a low-lipid diet inhibited growth of the pathogen, while none of the Carnobacterium divergens isolated from fish fed the high-lipid diet had this ability. When Arctic charr was fed different fatty acids, was the frequency of antibacterial ability of C. maltaromaticum highest in strains isolated from fish fed 4%α-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) and lowest in strains isolated from fish fed 4% linoleic acid (18:2 n-6). Extracellular growth inhibitory compounds harvested in exponential and stationary growth phase from eight carnobacteria strains isolated from three fish species were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of six fish pathogens [A. salmonicida, Vibrio splendidus strain VS11, Vibrio salmonicida strain LFI 315, Vibrio anguillarum strain LFI 317, Moritella (Vibrio) viscosa strain LFI 5000 and C. maltaromaticum (piscicola) CCUG 34645]. The highest antibacterial activity was found when cellular extracts of the producer isolate were harvested in stationary growth phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations of A. salmonicida showed that cell morphology was affected by the inhibitory substance produce by strain 8M851, a Carnobacterium inhibens-like bacteria.