Three groups of gynogenetic diploid bighead carp were successfully obtained by means of artificial gynogenesis. The activation rates of gynogenesis varied from 75.9% to 98.8%, and the frequency of spontaneous diploidization was around 0.4%. Over 2000 normally gynogenetic diploid fry were obtained in three gynogenetic groups. The haploid karyotype consisted of nine metacentric, 12 submetacentric, three subtelocentric chromosomes and 45 arms. The chromosome number was 48 from gynogenetic diploid. The results showed that the genetic material of offspring was maternal. The aneuploid hybrid embryos of bighead carp and Xingguo red common carp with chromosome numbers ranging from 28 to 73 did not survive post hatch, likely the result of incompatibility between the nucleus and the cytoplasm of two parents. Sixty RAPD primers from three groups were used for total DNA amplification of gynogenetic offspring, maternal and ‘paternal’ fish. A total of 451 bands were amplified from three kinds of samples above. From maternal bighead carp, 256 bands were amplified; however, there were 251 shared bands between maternal and gynogenetic bighead carp. From artificial gynogenetic offspring, two ‘paternal’ DNA segments without an expression function were found. An UPGMA tree showed that gynogenetic offspring were closely clustered and the genetic identity among them was very high (0.956).