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Nutritional requirements of cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus): a review


Correspondence: T W K Fraser, 27 Marshall Terrace, Leeds, LS15 8EA, UK. E-mail:


Cobia culture has been rapidly gaining in popularity since the early 1990s; however, the relative success of modified commercial diets in aquaculture has delayed the need for specific research into the nutritional requirements of cobia. Recent work has determined optimum dietary protein and lipid levels in juvenile cobia at 45 and 5–15% dry weight respectively. Maximum growth and feed conversion ratios have been recorded at 27–29 °C in juvenile cobia with an optimum ration level determined at 9% initial body weight per day. There is limited information on amino acid and essential fatty acids (EFA) requirements in cobia. Several studies have explored alternate protein sources in juvenile cobia with relative success observed with meat meal, yeast-based protein and various plant based sources including soybean meal. There is no literature on the vitamin or mineral requirements of cobia or the nutritional requirements of larger fish. Therefore future research should focus on the amino acid, EFA, vitamin and mineral requirements of cobia while the protein, lipid and energy requirements of larger cobia should be addressed. Additional work on feed ingredients, choice and palatability would also aid in maximizing culture production while minimizing costs thereby producing a more sustainable product.