The effect of substitution of fish meal (FM) by spray-dried blood cell meal (SBCM) with microencapsulated dl-methionine supplementation in trial diets for Litopenaeus vannamei was evaluated. Six isonitrogenous (320 g kg−1) and isolipidic (85 g kg−1) diets were formulated to feed shrimp (2.3±0.2 g shrimp−1) for 56 days. Shrimp were fed with six diets in which FM protein was gradually replaced by SBCM protein (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% in diets 0–5). Growth performances and feed utilization of shrimp fed diets containing 0%, 3.5%, 7.0% and 10.5% SBCM protein were not significantly different (P>0.05). Growth, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio of shrimp fed diets (80 and 100% FM substitution) were significantly poorer compared with other treatments (P<0.05). With increased levels of dietary SBCM, apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, crude protein enhanced from 76.9% to 82.3%, 84.8% to 89.0%, but crude lipid decreased from 90.6% to 88.3% respectively. The carcass composition values were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the replacement level of FM, except lipid. There were no significantly differences (P>0.05) in amino acid retentions among Diets 0–3. The results suggest that the dietary FM protein could efficiently be substituted by SBCM up to 60%, without adverse effects on the growth of L. vannamei.