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Effect of rotifer enrichment with herbal extracts on growth and resistance of red sea bream, Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel) larvae against Vibrio anguillarum


Correspondence: K Takii, Fisheries Laboratory, Kinki University, Uragami, Wakayama 649-5145, Japan. E-mail:


The effects of the dietary medicinal herbs Massa medicata, Crataegi fructus (Cf), Artemisia capillaries, Cnidium officinale and their mixture (HM), on growth and resistance against Vibrio anguillarum were examined using larval red sea bream, Pagrus major. The methanol extracts of Cf and HM inhibited the proliferation of seven infectious bacterial strains including the genera Aeromonas, Edwasiella, Photobavterium, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. Rotifers enriched with emulsified bonito oil containing extracts of Cf and HM lowered the bacterial counts in their body on TCBS medium for the genus Vibrio in comparison with rotifers enriched by emulsified bonito oil alone. Although statistically not significant, larvae fed rotifer fortified with Cf from 3 to 20 days after hatching showed the best growth and final body weight followed by those given rotifer with HM and control enrichment. However, final body length of larvae fed rotifer with Cf was significantly larger than larvae fed on rotifers enriched with other herb extracts. After a challenge test with V. anguillarum, survival of larvae fed rotifer with Cf and HM was significantly higher than for the control treatment. These results revealed that Cf and HM in rotifer is useful to promote growth and resistance against V. anguillarum in red sea bream larvae, providing a new technology for mass production of disease-resistant fry and fingerlings.